Cyanide poisoning by organic
Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
Nitriles (alkyl cyanides, hydrocyanic acid esters) - fluid entering the body through the respiratory system, easily absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes.
polytropic exerts effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, vasomotor center, textile enzymes, primarily respiratory, violate nitrogen metabolism.Toxicity due to action as a whole molecule, or release a biotransformation process cyanogen group, and the accumulation of ammonia and other nitrogen compounds.
When exposed to nitrites can increase the amount excreted in the urine thiocyanates that has diagnostic value.
acetonitrile - nitrile acetic acid.Colorless volatile liquid with ether odor.It is used as selective solvent hydrocarbon oils, in the production of aromatics.MPC -10 mg / m3.
Symptoms In acute poisoning with marked weakness, drowsiness, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain;in severe cases - pallor, epistaxis, drop in blood pressure, loss of consciousness.
Atsetontsiangidrid - hydroxy isobutyric acid nitrile.The volatile, colorless liquid with an odor of bitter almonds.Used for preparing methacrylic acid and its esters, polyacrylate plastic (organic glass) thereof.MPC - 0.9 mg / m3.
headache, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness, seizures.Described fatal poisoning.The consequence of acute poisoning may be a syndrome of diffuse lesions of the central nervous system.Acute poisonings occur more frequently during penetration through the skin (eg when pouring your hands, clothing).
Acrylonitrile - acrylonitrile, vinyl cyanides.Colorless volatile liquid with a distinctive odor.It is used for the production of divinilnitrilnyh rubber, organic glass with high heat resistance and abrazivo-, synthetic fibers - nitrone;for the synthesis of dyes, and as a pesticide.MPC - 0.5 mg / m3.
Acute poisoning: irritation of eyes and upper respiratory tract, skin itching, symptoms of resorptive action, similar to the poisoning of other nitrites. Chronic poisoning: atrophic rhinitis, laringofaringity, asthenovegetative syndrome with hypotension, lability of the pulse.Myocardiodystrophy.Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.Toxic liver disease.
There are indications of increased incidence of abortion pregnant, there conjunctivitis, trophic changes of the cornea, skin diseases, itching.After contact with skin burns occur I, II or III level (depending on the duration of contact), they can appear after 10-24 hours after the rapid removal of acrylonitrile.In the blood - moderate hypochromic anemia, leukopenia.
Work-related exposure to vapor, must be carried out in the universal filter masks.In the presence of high concentrations are used with hoses or self.Clothes made of smooth cotton cloth, protective gloves, sleeves, aprons, boots.Mandatory wash in the shower after work.After contact with nitrites on clothes or shoes - fast and change their body wash.After contact with the skin - immediate flushing of the skin with a stream of warm, soapy water.Mandatory periodic medical examinations