Cyanide poisoning inorganic
Occupational Diseases / / April 26, 2016
Hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid, formic acid nitrile) - a colorless, readily mobile, very volatile liquid;aqueous solutions with the smell of bitter almonds.hydrocyanic acid vapor is lighter than air.
sodium and potassium cyanide - colorless crystals in the air in the presence of moisture is easy to decompose with the release of hydrocyanic acid.Cyanogen chloride - a colorless liquid with a pungent smell.Cyanogen bromide - colorless crystals with a pungent odor. calcium Cyanamid - pure snow white, technical - grayish-black fine powder. black cyanide - a mixture of cyanide and calcium and sodium chlorides, dark gray powder (crystals or grains) with a faint odor of bitter almonds.
Hydrocyanic acid and cyanides found in the production of cyanide, benzene, xylene, toluene;the extraction of gold and silver from ores;cyanidation of steel;when electroforming Gold and silver plating;as pesticides (cyanogen chloride, cyanogen bromide, black cyanide);as a fertilizer (calcium cyanamide).
MPC for hydrogen cyanide and cyanides - 0.3 mg / m3.
enters the body through the respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, rapidly absorbed through the mucous membranes.Perhaps flow through the skin in contact with the solution, which is facilitated by the high temperature air and increased physical stress.In the body of hydrocyanic acid is partially destroyed, cyanide binds sulfur and excreted in the urine and feces.Part of hydrocyanic acid is released in the unaltered light (exhaled air has the smell of bitter almonds).
Cyanide, having a high affinity for ferric iron, blocking breathing gemiferment (cytochrome oxidase cells).Due to the inability to dispose of the oxygen comes tissue hypoxia.The oxygen content in the venous blood increases sharply, arteriovenous difference almost completely smoothed out.This explains the scarlet color of mucous membranes and the skin of the poisoned person.
affects the central nervous system as the most sensitive to oxygen starvation.Early suffer respiratory and vasomotor centers.In chronic poisoning reduced thyroid activity.
rapid development, at high concentrations - convulsions, unconsciousness and death due to the instantaneous respiratory paralysis or (later), heart failure (apoplectic form).At lower concentrations, and slower during distinguish several stages:
I stage of "primary phenomena» - metallic taste in the mouth, irritation of mucous membranes, numbness of the tongue, lips, chin, sometimes (in the form of a triangle);headaches, dizziness.The feeling of heat in the epigastric region, nausea, vomiting, urge to defecate.Aversion to smoking.Chest tightness, shortness of breath.Increased blood pressure.Weakness.Upon termination of the poison admission these phenomena are rapidly.
II stage of "breathlessness» - painful shortness of breath, breathing rhythm, pain in the heart, slowing heart rate, pupil dilation, exophthalmos, a sense of fear.
III stage of "convulsive» - increasing sense of longing, loss of consciousness, convulsions, lockjaw, tongue bite.
IV stage of "paralysis" or "asfiksicheskaya» - complete sensory loss, areflexia, involuntary urination and defecation.Breathing rare, superficial, irregular heartbeat, drop in blood pressure, paralysis of the respiratory center, death.Often such toxicity symptoms develop rapidly that step are laminated to each other, and they can not be clearly separated.
Halogen hydrocyanic acid has a strong irritant effect, until the development of toxic pulmonary edema.
Consequences of acute intoxication Cyanide: an opportunity to express persistent vegetative disorders, diffuse or focal lesions of the central nervous system - Parkinson's disease, cerebellar syndrome, hemiplegia, circulatory disorders.
Early signs include headaches, dizziness, weakness, memory loss, insomnia, pain in the heart, shortness of breath, dry throat, dyspeptic symptoms, enhanced sweating, frequent urination, decreased sexual ability.
in the blood - high levels of hemoglobin and red blood cells, reticulocytosis, leukocytosis with stab shift;weight loss, hypoglycemia, decreased basal metabolism.Intolerance to alcohol.Catarrhal symptoms of the upper respiratory tract;albuminuria.
There are several forms of chronic poisoning:
- with a primary lesion of the nervous system - neurotic, asthenic syndrome or vegetoastenichesky, vegetative-vascular dystonia, in more severe cases - mental disorders, substance-induced psychosis, Parkinson's syndrome, local micro;
- mainly affecting the cardiovascular system and respiratory system - expansion of borders of heart, deafness tones, hypotension, pulmonary emphysema;
- with a primary lesion of the digestive system - dyspeptic symptoms, changes in gastric acidity, moderate effects of toxic hepatitis;
- mainly affecting the thyroid gland - hypothyroidism phenomenon (puffy face, slow mental reaction, reduction of basal metabolism, goiter development and others.).
When working on potassium cyanide - skin lesions itching, acute and chronic eczema on the hands, peeling skin;when working with solutions - typical, poorly healing ulcers, sometimes very deep.
First aid for acute poisoning
therapy should be given immediately (inhalation of amyl nitrite - 2-3 drops to the fleece).Remove victim to a warm ventilated room, fresh air.Release from hindering clothing breath.Immediately remove contaminated clothing Cyanide, immediately wash the area of the body with warm water.Heat.Peace.Continue antidotal therapy.
Light acute cyanide poisoning have consequences.After severe intoxication with cyanide further work is contraindicated.Long-term effects of severe intoxication (expressed disorders of the nervous system) may lead to permanent disabilities.
When the initial milder forms of chronic intoxication - appropriate treatment, it is desirable spa, granting leave.Medical supervision.With more pronounced and persistent toxicity - treatment in the hospital, spa treatment, permanent transfer to another job.
Sealing and automation of processes in which hydrogen cyanide may be released.Strict control over the safe storage of cyanide compounds.Working in masks (control over their serviceability).After disinfection of premises cyanide compounds must be carefully ventilation, control of air pollution.Entry to the premises is permitted only through the day by carrying out these activities.Strict personal hygiene measures.Mandatory introduction of working with dangerous action of cyanide, with the safety regulations and measures, first aid and mutual aid (CPR).Automatic alarm system for hazardous concentrations of cyanide compounds in the air.Required preliminary and periodic medical examinations.
poisoning calcium cyanamide.
Cyanide poisoning organic.