Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
belongs to the group of trace elements, advantageously meets with sulfur compounds and various copper ores.In alloys with metals obtained selenium metals.
used in electric and electronic, ceramic industry, in the production of high-quality alloy steel, photocell, plastics and chemicals, in television, and others. In a production environment can be released into the air of working premises in the form of vapor and aerosol of finely elemental selenium, and togetherwith selenious anhydride.MPC for selenide anhydride - 0.1 mg / m3, for amorphous selenium - 2 mg / m3
Selenium and its compounds enter the body through the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and skin.Selenium accumulates in all organs, primarily in the liver, kidney, spleen, in her hair.Report from the body slowly over a number of years.The main route of excretion - kidney, to a lesser extent is allocated through the gastro-intestinal tract, partly in the form of light selenide bromide;Selenium can be found in all biosubstrate
Selenium belongs to thiol poisons blocks sulfhydryl groups, inactivating the enzyme systems.It violates the metabolism, especially protein.Selenium (particularly organic compounds it) - poison the nervous system, causing a drop in blood pressure, convulsions, central nervous system atony, increased permeability of the capillary walls;strong hepatotropic poison that affects the liver is already in small doses;It is irritating (especially hydrogen selenide).It causes anemia.
possibility of penetration through the placenta, decreased viability and fetal death.
Symptoms of acute intoxication
are rare and mostly occur easily.General weakness, headache, dizziness, pain in the eyes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.The feeling of pressure in your chest, painful cough.Irritation of eyes and upper respiratory tract.Garlic smell of leather, sweat, urine, breath;observed convulsions.Quickly passing gastroenterocolitis.In more severe cases, there is an increase and tenderness of the liver and spleen.
In acute intoxication selenious anhydride - tetanic convulsions, pulmonary edema possible.
In acute poisoning with hydrogen selenide - a sharp irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract, after a few hours may be toxic pneumonia, pulmonary edema.
Headache, dizziness, irritability, cramps in the fingers, loss of appetite, pain in the right upper quadrant;runny nose, nosebleeds, insomnia, shortness of breath.The decline of power.The lability of the autonomic nervous system, hypotension, bradycardia.Emphysema.Bronchitis with symptoms of bronchospasm.Crusts in the nasal mucosa;garlic breath.Dental caries, loss of hair.In the first place in the picture of chronic intoxication - toxic hepatitis, biliary dyskinesia, cholecystitis, gastritis, irritable bowel syndrome.In more severe cases - neuroendocrine disorders, thyroid enlargement, increased basal metabolic rate, tachycardia, weight loss.In the blood - hemoglobin decrease, relative lymphocytosis, eosinophilia.In urine, feces, duodenal juice selenium detected (normally in urine - up to 0.04 mg / l).
There are two forms of chronic intoxication with selenium.The first form - with a prevalence of phenomena gepatoholetsistopatii, the second - with the endocrine and autonomic disorders of character.Individuals living in areas where there is "alkaline disease" animals (excess selenium in the soil), observed violation of the tooth enamel, chronic arthritis, gastrointestinal disorders, anemia, rash.
In direct contact with selenium salts are developing slowly healing burns, dermatitis.Skin selenide anhydride - a sharp pain, numbness, rashes.Under the influence of pulverized selenium - gray pigmentation of open parts of the body (selenium deposition).
First aid and treatment
In cases of acute intoxication bring the victim into a warm, ventilated room or to fresh air.Warm the patient - warmers, warm drink.Rinsing of eyes 2% sodium hydrogen carbonate, gargling with a solution of soda, alkaline inhalation, mustard plasters on his chest, burying his nose in a 2% solution of ephedrine.Intramuscular - diphenhydramine.Inside - codeine.Intravenous administration of sodium thiosulfate - 30-50 mL of 30% solution.Cardiac indicated.In convulsions - Vitamin B1 (30-50 ml) intravenously, intramuscularly, magnesium sulfate 5.8 - 10 ml of a 25% solution.If you get selenium to the skin immediately wash the affected area with copious stream of water.
In chronic intoxication - Treatment of glucose, sodium thiosulfate.The diet should include cottage cheese, oatmeal, rice, carbohydrates.Limit fats.
In the case of pronounced chronic intoxications, with current liver disease, neuroendocrine disorders, further work with Selenium and its compounds, as well as other toxic substances is contraindicated.
The use of rubber gloves in case of direct skin contact with selenium salts at work.A diet rich in proteins and carbohydrates (cottage cheese, oatmeal, etc.).Preliminary and periodic medical examinations.