Occupational Diseases / / April 19, 2016
Nicotine - a colorless, oily liquid with a disagreeable odor stupefying.Poisoning possible in the production of tobacco and tobacco products, particularly when drying tobacco (tobacco dust contains 0,7-3% of nicotine), the nicotine solution in the application as a pesticide.MPC tobacco dust - 3 mg / m3 for a nicotine-sulfate - 0.1 mg / m3.It enters the body through the respiratory system and skin.Provided kidneys, lungs, salivary and sweat glands.Nicotine
primarily acts on the intermediate ganglia of the autonomic nervous system: first turned on and then paralyzing them.It affects the heart muscle and the cardiovascular system.Slightly irritating properties.It has an allergic effect.
In acute intoxication observed a burning sensation and dryness in the mouth, scratching in the throat, headache, dizziness, severe weakness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, photophobia, pain in the heart, tachycardia or bradycardia, arrhythmia, salivation, cold sweat, pupillary constriction, drop i
Symptoms of chronic poisoning
In chronic poisoning initial signs are headaches, dizziness, irritability, fatigue, insomnia, memory loss, palpitations, heart pain, dyspepsia (decrease or loss of appetite, heartburn, nausea, vomiting,diarrhea or constipation).OBJECTIVE: conjunctivitis, loss of sensitivity of the cornea, atrophic changes in the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and gums, ulcers, vascular disorders - bradycardia, arrhythmia, extrasystoles, hypertension, migraine attacks, koronarospazm (so-called "tobacco angina"), gastroangiospazm, excessive sweating, salivation, tremor, gastric hypersecretion and other autonomic disorders, weight loss.
may be muscle changes on the electrocardiogram.There are cases of organic diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system: sensory polyneuritis, ataxia, speech disorders, and so on characteristic changes of function...Possible destruction of the auditory nerve.In the blood - moderate anemia, relative lymphocytosis, lowering the reserve alkalinity of the blood.A sharp reduction in saturation of the body with vitamin C. Smokers
probability of chronic poisoning increases, they observed a severe pattern of intoxication.Chronic nicotine poisoning worsens ulcer disease.In tobacco factories workers are often observed menstrual disorders, early menopause, abnormal pregnancy, decreased lactation (nicotine is determined in breast milk), increased frequency of gynecological diseases.Among growers increased the overall incidence and rate of allergic diseases.
First aid and treatment
case of severe acute poisoning by inhalation - inhalation of oxygen and carbogen (15 min - carbogen, 45 min - oxygen), 1 ml of 0.1% solution of atropine subcutaneously.
case of violation of breath - prolonged artificial respiration;cardiac arrest - intracardiac administration of epinephrine (0.5-1 ml of a 0.1% solution).
After ingestion - urgent wash freshly prepared solution (0.1%) of potassium permanganate, or (worse) a 2% solution of tannin, or a suspension of activated charcoal.Then every 10-15 minutes allow to drink a tablespoon of diluted iodine solution (2 teaspoons per cup of water) and antidotal mixture (TM), consisting of 25 g of tannin, 50 g of activated carbon and 25 g of magnesium oxide, Stir at 0, 5-1 glass of water.1 ml of a 0.5% solution of apomorphine subcutaneously.Saline laxatives.Intravenous 20 ml of 40% glucose solution with 300 mg of ascorbic acid.If severe diarrhea - the preparations of morphine subcutaneously warmers on her stomach.When excited - sedatives (drugs valerian, bromides).In convulsions - intramuscularly hexenal (10 mL of 10% solution) or barbamil (5.10 ml of solution 5) oxygen inhalation.If you get the nicotine droplets on the skin, immediately wash with running water, better - acidified with acetic or citric acid.