Cancer and brain tumors :
Oncology / / August 12, 2017
cancer and tumors of the brain video
cancers and brain tumors
cause of cancer and brain tumors
risk factors for cancer and brain tumors
degrees of brain cancer
symptoms of cancer and brain tumorbrain
Specific influence of tumors on the body's functions
cancer diagnosis and brain tumors
cancer and brain tumors treatment
Surgical treatment of cancer and tumors of the brain
complications of cancer and brain tumors, treatment of complications
prognosis of cancer and brain tumors
Survival of cancer or tumorsbrain
brain tumors consist of cancer cells that exhibit abnormal growth in the brain.They may be benign (meaning that they do not spread elsewhere and do not penetrate into the surrounding tissue) or malignant (cancerous).Cancerous brain tumors is also divided into primary and secondary.
cancers and brain tumors
Primary brain tumors . Primary tumors appear in the brain, whereas secondary tumors spread from the brain to other organs such as the breast or lung.(In this docu
primary benign brain tumors account for half of all brain tumors.These cells look relatively normal, grow slowly and do not spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, do not invade brain tissue.However, even benign tumors can be a serious problem, even life-threatening, when located in vital areas of the brain where exert pressure on the sensitive nerve tissue, or if they increase the pressure on the brain.
Although some benign brain tumor can pose a health risk, including the risk of disability and death, most of them tend to be successfully treated with techniques such as surgery.
Primary malignant brain tumors originate in the brain.Although they are often transmitted cancer cells to other parts of the central nervous system (the brain or spinal cord), they rarely spread to other parts of the body.
Brain tumors are usually classified and named according to the following criteria:
- type of brain cells from which they originate;
- a place in which the cancer develops.
biological diversity of these tumors, however, makes it difficult to classify.
Secondary malignant (metastatic) brain tumors. Secondary, metastatic brain tumors occur when cancer cells spreading to the brain from a primary cancer elsewhere in the body.Secondary brain tumors occur about three times more common than primary.
Solitary brain metastasis of cancer can occur, but are less common than multiple tumors.Most often, the cancer that has spread to the brain and cause secondary brain tumors occur in the lung, breast, kidneys or melanoma.All
metastatic brain tumors are malignant.
- Primary brain tumors - gliomas. About 80% of primary malignant brain tumors known as gliomas.It is not any particular type of cancer, but the term is used to describe tumors that arise from glial cells (glia or glial cells - These cells surround nerve cells and play a supportive role, glial cells, except microglia have common features and some common origin,they constitute microenvironment specific to neurons, providing conditions for the transmission of nerve impulses).Glial cells are the building blocks of the connective tissue or supporting cells in the central nervous system (CNS).
gliomas are divided into four classes, which reflect the degree of malignancy.Classes (degree) I and II are considered low-grade, and classes III and IV - full-fledged.Classes I and II - with the slowest and least malignant.Class III malignant tumors and is considered to grow at a moderate rate.Class IV malignant - tumor such as glioblastoma, the most rapidly growing and most malignant primary brain tumor.Gliomas can develop several types of glial cells.
- Astrocytomas.Astrocytomas primary brain tumors derived from astrocytes, glial cells, too.On astrocytomas account for about 60% of all malignant primary brain tumors.
- oligodendrogliomas develop from oligodendrocytes - glial cells, which form a protective coating around nerve cells.Oligodendrogliomas classified as low-grade (grade II) or anaplastic (grade III).Oligodendrogliomas are rare.In most cases, they occur in the mixed gliomas.Oligodendroglioma usually occurs in young people and middle-aged.
- Ependymomas output from ependymal cells in lower parts of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.They are one of the most common types of brain tumors in children.They can also occur in adults aged 40 to 50 years.Ependymomas divided into four categories (class): miksopapillary ependymoma (grade I), subependimomy (class I), ependymoma (grade II) and anaplastic aependimomy (III and IV classes).
Mixed gliomas contain a mixture of malignant gliomas.About half of these tumors contain cancer oligodendrocytes and astrocytes.Gliomas can also contain cancer cells than glial derived from brain cells.
- Non-glioma. malignant types of brain tumor - glioma-not - include:
- Medulloblastoma. They are always in the cerebellum, which lies toward the back of the brain.These fast growing tumors highly constitute about 15-20% to 20% of pediatric and adult brain tumors.
- pituitary adenomas. Tumors of the pituitary gland (also known as "pituitary adenomas") account for about 10% of primary and often benign brain tumors, slowly growing in the pituitary gland.They are more common in women than men.
- CNS Lymphoma. CNS can influence people and with a healthy immune system and immunodeficiency caused by other diseases (recipients of organ transplants, HIV-infected, and the like).CNS lymphomas frequently arise in the cerebral hemispheres, but can also occur in the cerebrospinal fluid, spinal cord and eyes.
Benign brain types of non-gliomas include:
- Meningiomas. It is usually benign tumors that develop in the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord (meninges).Meningiomas account for about 25% of all primary brain tumors and are most common in women 60-70 years old.Meningiomas are classified as benign meningiomas (grade I), atypical meningioma (grade II) and anaplastic meningioma (grade III).
Causes cancer and tumors of the brain
- Genetics. only 5-10% of primary brain tumors are associated with hereditary genetic disorders.
example, neurofibromatosis is associated with 15% of pilocytic astrocytomas - the most common type of glioma in childhood.
many different cancer-causing genes (oncogenes) involved in the growth of brain tumors.The receptors to stimulate cell growth.Epidermal growth factor receptor plays an important role in the high-grade brain tumor glioblastoma.Knowing the molecular origin of brain tumors, we can determine the course of treatment for both standard chemotherapy and for the "targeted therapy" biological agents.
Most genetic abnormalities that cause brain tumors, are not inherited, but occur as a result of environmental or other factors that affect the genetic material (DNA) in cells.Researchers studying various environmental factors (viruses, hormones, chemicals, radiation, etc.) that can cause genetic damage leading to brain tumors.They also work to identify the specific genes that are affected by these environmental triggers (i.e., irritants, catalysts).
risk factors for cancer and brain tumors
Primary malignant brain tumors account for about 2% of all cancer cases.However, the brain and spinal cord tumors are leukemia after the second most common form of cancer in children.
- Paul. Brain tumors occur more frequently in men than in women.Some of the types (such as meningioma) are more common in women.
- Age. Most brain tumors are found in adults aged 65 to 79 years.Brain tumors usually occur in children under the age of 8 years.
- Race. risk of primary brain tumors in whites is higher than that of other races.
- environmental and occupational risk factors. Effects of ionizing radiation, usually radiation therapy, is the only risk factor for environmental protection, which is associated with brain tumors.People who are in the treatment of any cancer receive radiation therapy of the head, have an increased risk of developing brain tumors 10-15 years later.
nuclear industry workers are also at increased risk.Studies
metals, chemicals and other substances, including vinyl chloride, oil, lead, arsenic, mercury, pesticides and others. Continues.
- Medical conditions. People with immune system disorders are at increased risk of central nervous system lymphoma.Organ transplantation, HIV infection and chemotherapy - medical factors that can weaken the immune system.
brain cancer Malignant primary brain tumors are classified according to the degree (grade) of malignancy.I degree - less cancer, grade III and IV - the most dangerous.The classification of tumors can help predict the rate of growth and their tendency to spread.
tumor cell class I and II shall be clearly defined, and they are under the microscope - almost normal appearance.Certain low-grade primary brain tumors curable by surgery alone, and some of these are curable by surgery and radiotherapy.Low-grade tumors generally have the best survival results.However, this is not always the case.For example, some low-grade glioma II have a very high risk of progression.Tumor cells
higher degree (III and IV) and adrenal are more diffuse, indicating a more aggressive behavior (for high-grade brain tumors usually require surgical intervention, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, etc.).In tumors which contain a mixture of different classes of cells differentiate into tumor cells according to the highest grade in the blend.
symptoms of cancer and brain tumors
brain tumors produce a variety of symptoms.They often mimic other neurological disorders, as also dangerous (not always immediately possible to diagnose).The problem occurs if the tumor directly damages the nerves in the brain or central nervous system, or if its growth is putting pressure on the brain.Symptoms may be weak and gradually become worse, or they may occur very quickly.
main symptoms: headache;gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea and vomiting;seizures, etc.
tumors can be localized and affect areas of the brain.In such cases, they can cause partial seizures, a person does not lose consciousness, but he may have thought confusion, twitching, tingling or blurred mental and emotional events.Generalised seizures which can result in loss of consciousness, less common, since they are caused by disorders of nerve cells in the diffuse areas of the brain.
Mental changes like symptoms brain tumors may include:
- memory loss;
- impaired concentration;
- problems with reasoning;
- changes in personality and behavior;
- an increase in sleep duration.
- gradual loss of movement or sensation in the hands or feet;
- instability and problems with balance;
- sudden blurred vision (especially if it is associated with the headache), including vision loss (usually a peripheral) in one or both eyes, double vision;
- hearing loss with or without dizziness him;
- speech difficulty.
Specific influence of tumors on the body's functions
Brain tumors can cause seizures, mental changes, emotional changes of mood.The tumor can also impair the function of the muscles, hearing, vision, speech and other neurological activity.Many children who survive brain tumors are at risk of long-term neurological complications.Children under 7 years of age (especially under 3 years) have the highest risk for the full development of cognitive functions.These problems may result from the tumor and its processing (cranial radiotherapy, chemotherapy, etc).
diagnosis of cancer and brain tumors
Neurological examination is usually conducted when the patient complains of symptoms suggestive of a brain tumor.The survey includes a test of eye movement, hearing, sensation, muscle strength, smell, balance and coordination.The doctor also checks the patient's mental state and memory.
Advanced imaging techniques have greatly improved the diagnosis of brain tumors:
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). provides MRI brain images from different angles, which can help doctors to construct a clear three-dimensional image near the bone tumor, a brainstem tumors and tumors of low grade.MRI also during the operation shows the tumor size for accurate mapping of the brain and response to therapy.MRI creates detailed images of complex structures of the brain, allowing physicians to more accurately define the tumor or aneurysm.
- Computed tomography (CT) helps determine the location of the tumor and sometimes can help to determine the type.It can also help detect edema, bleeding and symptoms associated with them.Additionally, CT is used to assess the effectiveness of treatment and monitoring of tumor recurrence.CT or MRI, generally must be performed before the lumbar procedures to ensure that the procedure can be performed safely.
- Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a picture of the brain's activity by monitoring the sugar, which were labeled with radioactive tracers, sometimes - to distinguish between recurrent tumor cells and dead cells or scar tissue caused by radiation therapy.PET is generally not used for diagnosis, but may supplement MRI to determine the degree of tumor diagnosis.These PET can also help improve the accuracy of the new radiosurgery techniques.PET is often done in conjunction with CT.
- single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) helps to distinguish tumor cells after treatment of destroyed tissue.It can be used after a CT or MRI scan to help differentiate between low-grade and high-grade.
- magnetoencephalography (MEG) scans measure the magnetic fields produced by nerve cells, producing an electric current.