Lung cancer : causes, symptoms stage treatment
Oncology / / August 12, 2017
Lung Cancer video
How common is lung cancer?
What are the types of lung cancer?
What are the signs and symptoms of lung cancer?As
lung cancer diagnosed?
What are the stages of lung cancer?As
lung cancer treated?
What is the prognosis of treatment of lung cancer?
What causes lung cancer?
How common is lung cancer?
Lung cancer is one of the main causes of death on the ground.The average of 100 reported cases of the disease and 72 people die in the first year after diagnosis.According to statistics, every 14th man faced or will face this disease in my life.Lung cancer most often affects older people.Approximately 70% of all cases of cancer detection occurs in people older than 65 years.People younger than 45 years are rarely affected with this disease, their share in the total mass of cancer patients is only 3%.
What are the types of lung cancer?
Lung cancer is divided into two main types: small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and large cell carcinoma (NSCLC).These types of cancer spread
- cell lung cancer occupies approximately 20% of the total number of cancer cases.This type of cancer is the most dangerous, as quickly and aggressively propagated.Small cell lung cancer is almost always occurs due to smoking, only 1% of nonsmokers have this type of cancer.Small cell lung cancer spreads quickly throughout the body and is often found, when many agencies are already overwhelmed.
- large cell carcinoma more common, it occurs in 80% of cases.Large cell carcinoma is classified into 3 types: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell, undifferentiated.The classification is based on the type of cancer cells and their location.
- Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of cancer, accounting for about 50% of cases.This type is most common in non-smokers.Most adenocarcinomas arise in the outer, or peripheral areas of the lungs.
- Squamous cell carcinoma. The share of this cancer accounts for about 20% of all lung cancer cases.This type of cancer most often develops in the central part of the chest or bronchitis.Earlier, squamous cell carcinoma more commonly adenocarcinoma, but in recent decades the situation has changed.
-Nedifferentsirovanny cancer , most rarely occurring type of cancer, it accounts for only a few percent of all cancer cases.
What are the signs and symptoms of lung cancer?
symptoms of lung cancer depend on the location of the cancer, and lung lesion size.Also sometimes it develops lung cancer symptoms, which greatly complicates the diagnosis.
Around 25% of lung cancer cases detected by routine chest X-ray passage.Typically, these people believe that their lungs are completely healthy.Pictured lung cancer looks like a coin, stuck in the lungs.Most often asymptomatic disease manifests itself in the early stages.
As the proliferation of cancerous tissues in patients appears breathing problems, chest pain, and coughing up blood.If cancer cells are struck by nerves, it can cause pain in the shoulder, he gave into his hand.If it affects the vocal cords occurs hoarseness.The defeat of the esophagus can lead to difficulty in swallowing.The spread of metastases in the bone causes excruciating pain in them.Contact with metastasis to the brain typically appeals reduced vision, headaches, loss of sensation in parts of the body.
Another feature is the manufacture of a cancer tumor cells hormone-like substances that increase the level of calcium in the body.
addition to the above symptoms of lung cancer, as well as in other types of cancer the patient loses weight, feels weakness and constant fatigue.Also, quite often observed depression and mood swings.
As lung cancer diagnosed?
following methods used for the diagnosis of lung cancer. This is the first thing that is done in the presence of suspected lung cancer.In this case, take a picture, not only the front but also from the side.X-rays may help figure out the problem areas in the lungs, but they can not accurately show the cancer is, or something else.Chest radiography is a pretty safe procedure, as the patient is exposed to a small fraction of exposure.
Computed tomography. If X-rays revealed the problem areas, the CT scans prescribed.With CT images do not only chest and abdomen and brain.All this is done in order to determine - whether there is metastasis to other organs.Computer tomography is more sensitive to the nodules in the lungs.Occasionally, to more accurately detect problem areas in the blood of the patient is administered contrast agents.
Needless computer scan usually takes place without any side effects, but the entry of contrast agents can sometimes cause itching, rashes and urticaria.
As well as chest X-ray computed tomography only is the problem of the place, but you can not say for sure it is cancer or something else.To confirm the diagnosis of cancer requires further study.
Magnetic resonance imaging. This type of study is used when the need for more precise information on the location of the cancer.With this method it is possible to obtain images of very high quality that allows you to determine the slightest changes in the tissues.MRI uses magnetism and radio waves, has no side effects.Magnetic resonance imaging does not apply if a person has a pacemaker, metal implants, artificial heart valves and other implanted structures, since there is a risk of their displacement under the influence of magnetism.
Positron Emission Tomography. D anny method is based on the use of fast-disintegrating radioactive preparations.radioactive drug is injected in the human body, and then determined by means of scanning the places where there is a large concentration of it.Concentration in certain tissues depends on the drug.
essence of this method can be illustrated by the input of radioactive substances with glucose.Cancer cells need a lot of glucose, as growing rapidly, so increased radioactive activity will occur in these areas.Dose using this method are several times higher than conventional X-ray examination, but it is not life threatening.
Radioisotope bone scan. This method is used to determine whether the cancer has not returned lung metastases in bone.The method consists in the introduction of a small amount of radioactive material, which is then stored in the bones.The concentration of radioactive material is then determined using a special scanner.
sputum cytology. diagnosis of lung cancer should always be confirmed by cytology.Data obtained by computer tomography and X-ray images are not enough.The sputum is examined under a microscope.This method is the most secure, simple and inexpensive, but the accuracy of this method is limited because the cancer cells are not always present in the sputum.Moreover, some cells may be plunged sometimes changes in response to inflammation or injury that makes them look like cancer cells.
Bronchoscopy. The method consists in the water in the respiratory tract of a thin fiber-optic probe.The probe is inserted through the nose or mouth.The method allows to take tissue for examination for the presence of cancer cells.Bronchoscopy provides good results in finding the tumor in the central regions of the lungs.The procedure is very painful and is done under anesthesia.Bronchoscopy is considered a relatively safe method of research.After bronchoscopy is usually seen coughing up blood within 1-2 days.More serious complications such as severe bleeding, cardiac arrhythmia and reduced oxygen levels are rare.After the procedure are also possible side effects caused by the use of anesthesia.
lung biopsy. This method is used when you can not reach the affected area using light bronchoscopy.The procedure is performed under the control of computer tomography or ultrasound.The procedure gives good results when the affected area is on the upper layers of the lungs.The method consists in the water of the needle through the chest and sucking liver tissue, which are then examined under a microscope.A biopsy is performed under local anesthesia.Biopsy makes it quite accurately determine lung cancer, but only when the cells were able to accurately take out the affected area.
Thoracentesis (needle biopsy). The method consists in taking for analysis of fluid from the pleural cavity.Sometimes, the cancer cells accumulate there.This method is also carried out using a needle and under local anesthesia.
Surgical removal of tissue.E If none of the above methods can not be applied in this case resort to surgery.Surgery is of two types: mediastinoscopy and thoracoscopy.For mediastinoscopy using a mirror with built-in LED.With this method, a biopsy is taken and lymph node examination performed organs and tissues.When the autopsy comes thoracoscopy chest and taking tissue for research.This procedure is also used for removing part of the lung or esophagus.
blood tests. routine blood tests alone can not afford to diagnose cancer, but they allow to reveal biochemical or metabolic abnormalities in the body that accompany cancer.For example, elevated levels of calcium, alkaline phosphatase enzymes .
What are the stages of lung cancer?
Cancer Stages are set depending on its size, the presence of metastases in lymph nodes and other organs.Proper staging of lung cancer is very important, because for each stage there is their own treatments.Besides the stage of cancer it is critical to assess prognosis.The higher the stage of the cancer, the worse the prognosis.
1 stage. Cancer struck by one segment of the lung.The size of the affected area not more than 3 cm.
2 stage. spread of cancer is limited to the rib cage.The size of the affected area not more than 6 cm.
3 stage. size of the affected area of more than 6 cm. The spread of cancer is limited to the rib cage.There is extensive lymph node involvement.
4 stage. metastases have spread to other organs.
cell lung cancer is also sometimes divided into only two stages.
localized tumor process. spread of cancer is limited to the rib cage.
common forms of cancer. metastases have spread to other organs.
As lung cancer treated?
Treatment of lung cancer may include surgical removal of the cancer, chemotherapy and radiation.As a rule, all these three types of treatment are combined.The decision as to which treatment use is adopted depending on the location and magnitude of the cancer, as well as the patient's general condition.
As with treatment of other types of cancer, the treatment is directed or complete removal of the cancer, or in areas where it is not possible to alleviate the pain and suffering.
Surgery. Surgery is mainly used only during the first or second stage of the cancer.Surgical intervention is acceptable about 10-35% of cases.Unfortunately, surgery does not always give a positive result, very often the cancer cells have already been put to other organs.After surgery, approximately 25-45% of people live more than 5 years.Surgery is not possible if the affected tissues are close to the trachea or the patient has a serious cardiac disease.Surgery is rarely indicated for small cell cancer because cancer is rarely a localized only in the lungs.
type of surgery depends on the size and location of the tumor.It can be removed of the lobe of the lung, one lobe of the lung or the whole lung.Together with the removal of the affected lung tissue removed lymph nodes.
After surgery on the lung patients in need of care for a few weeks or months.People who have undergone surgery, usually experience difficulty in breathing, shortness of breath, pain and weakness.Also possible after surgery complications due to bleeding.
Radiotherapy. Radiation therapy is used to treat both types of cancers (small cell and macrocellular).The essence of this method is the use of radiation to kill cancer cells.It is often combined with radiation therapy and chemotherapy to surgery.
When lung cancer is also used brachytherapy.With this method, small beads with a radioactive substance is placed directly into the inflamed area, or next to the respiratory tract cancer.This is usually done through a bronchoscope.
Radiation therapy is used when a person refuses surgery if the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes or the operation is not possible.Radiotherapy usually only compresses or limits tumor growth, but in 10-15% of cases of long-term remission.People who have other lung diseases other than cancer, usually radiation therapy is not appointed, because radiation can reduce lung function.
Radiation therapy has risks as in major surgery, but it can have unpleasant side effects, including fatigue, lack of energy, a decrease in the number of white blood cells (a person more susceptible to infection) and low levels of platelets in the blood (blood clotting is disturbed).
In addition there may be problems on the part of the digestive organs exposed to radiation.
Chemotherapy . This method as well as radiation therapy is applicable in any type of cancer.Chemotherapy refers to treatment that halts the growth of cancer cells, killing them and prevents them from dividing.
Chemotherapy is the main method of treatment of small cell lung cancer, as it covers all the organs.Without chemotherapy, only half of the people with small cell cancer live more than 4 months.
chemotherapy drugs can be administered in tablets or intravenously.Chemotherapy is usually performed on an outpatient basis.Chemotherapy is carried out in cycles of weeks or months, with breaks in between cycles.Unfortunately, the drugs used in chemotherapy, usually disrupt the process of cell division in the body, leads to unpleasant side effects (increased susceptibility to infections, bleeding, etc.).Other side effects include mouth and cavity, weight loss, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and mouth sores.The side effects usually disappear after treatment.
treatment of lung cancer in
Israel lung cancer in Israel is directly involved in great doctors and professors.Under their tutelage sensitive patient first takes an in-depth diagnostics, including blood tests for tumor markers, chest X-ray, PET-CT, and then depending on the outcome of an individual treatment plan is developed.In addition to the basics of the basics - surgical treatment - in Israeli hospitals use cutting-edge methods of radiation therapy (brachytherapy, 3D-conformal radiotherapy) and the targeted therapy, rightly considered a new word in Oncology.