Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Neurology / / May 01, 2016
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - a neurobehavioral disorder that is usually characterized by the following symptoms:
Types of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are divided into three subtypes:
- predominantly hyperactive or impulsive type.Behavior observed hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not inattentiveness;
- predominantly inattentive type.Behavior observed inattentiveness, but not hyperactivity and impulsivity;
- combined type.A combination of symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity - the symptoms of inattention.This is the most common type of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is sometimes described as impairing brain function.This refers to the cognitive abilities necessary for the planning, organization and execution of tasks.The deficit
- failure to store information in the short-term memory;
- breach of organization and planning skills;
- difficulties in establishing and using guidelines of behavior - such as the choice of strategy and monitoring tasks;
- inability to cope with overwhelming emotions;
- inability to effectively move from one mental activity to another.
symptoms of attention deficit disorder with children giperaktivnostyuu
- Hyperactivity. term "hyperactive" is often misleading, since some of it suggests that the child is in constant non-stop movement.However, boys with ADHD, playing a game, for example, can have the same level of activity as children without the syndrome.But when the child has received increased attention, it enhances the brain locomotor activity.In a busy environment - a classroom or a crowded store - Children with ADHD are often distracted and react rapidly to all.They can take without asking a parent goods from the shelves, beat people - in short, they all go out of control, resulting in the erratic and strange behavior.
- Impulsiveness and hysterical. hysteria, which is normal in young children, children with ADHD tend to be exaggerated and not necessarily associated with a specific negative event.
- Attention and concentration. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder tend to get distracted and inattentive made in relation to the environment (for example, a large class).In addition, they are not careful, when the atmosphere - quiet or boring.On the contrary, they may have some sort of "superkontsentratsiey" high catalytic activity (for example, a video game or a very specific interests).These children may even be too careful - they are so engrossed in an interesting pastime for them, which is absolutely can not change the direction of your attention.
- Violation of short-term memory. An important feature of the syndrome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, including training, is a violation of labor (or short-term) memory.People with ADHD can not keep in their minds the image group of offers and long enough to extract the clear, harmonious thoughts.They do not necessarily inattentive.A person with ADHD may not be able to recall a complete explanation (such as homework) or be unable to complete the processes that require sequential memory (such as building model).Children with ADHD often attract activities (television, computer games, active individual sports), which do not overload working memory and do not produce distractions.Children with ADHD did not differ from other children on long-term memory.
- Inability to manage time. in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may have difficulty - be everywhere on time and to plan time to perform certain tasks (which may coincide with the short-term memory problems).
- lack of ability to adapt. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is often very difficult to adapt to even small changes in procedures - such as getting up in the morning, putting on shoes, the adoption of new types of food or changing sleep patterns.Any change in the situation of anything can cause them a strong and noisy backlash.Even when they are in a good mood, they can suddenly go into hysterics when meet an unexpected change or disappointment.These children can focus directly on the remarks in a certain place, but face difficulties in switching attention to anything else.
- Hypersensitivity and sleep problems. Children with ADHD often are hypersensitive to things, sounds and touch.They may complain of excessive stimuli that seem insignificant to others, or soft.Many children with ADHD often have overnight sleep problems.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disease that began in childhood.Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a continuation of the symptoms of children with the syndrome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
symptoms of attention deficit disorder with giperaktivnostyuu adults
- Mental disorders. About 20% of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also have a large depression or bipolar disorder.Up to 50% have anxiety disorders.Bipolar disorder can be very difficult to distinguish not only in adult ADHD, but also in children.
- disorders accompanying training. have the ability of the brain to learning disorders About 20% of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.This usually dyslexia and auditory processing problems.
- Impact on the job. Compared to adults without attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder, patients with hyperactivity, tend to have less education, earn less money and, as a consequence, they are often fired.
- Substance Abuse. About 1 in 5 adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is also struggling with substance abuse.Research shows that teens with ADHD are twice as likely to smoke cigarettes than their peers who do not have ADHD.Smoking in adolescence is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood.
reasons attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity
- the brain structure. studies using advanced imaging techniques show the difference in the size of certain parts of the brain in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared to children who do not have ADHD.Areas with the changes include: the prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and cerebellum;
- brain chemicals. Increased activity of certain brain chemicals in the prefrontal cortex may contribute to ADHD.Chemicals dopamine and norepinephrine are of particular interest.Dopamine and norepinephrine are neurotransmitters (chemical mediators in the brain), which affect the mental and emotional functioning.They also play a role in the response to a fee.This reaction occurs when a person feels pleasure in response to certain stimuli (eg, food or love).Studies have shown that elevated levels of brain chemicals glutamate, glutamine and GABA - interact with the dopamine and norepinephrine;
- Genetic factors. Genetic factors are likely to play a role in ADHD.Relatives of children with ADHD (boys and girls) - a much higher percentage of ADHD, as well as anxiety and antisocial disorders, substance abuse, than in families without children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Some studies of twins have shown that up to 90% of children diagnosed with ADHD share it with its twin.Most of the studies done on the basic genetic mechanisms of neurotransmitter dopamine.Changes in genes that regulate specific receptors of dopamine, were found in a large number of people with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity.
Risk Factors attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity
- Paul . ADHD is diagnosed more often in boys than in girls.Boys more likely to have ADHD combined type.Girls tend to have predominantly inattentive type;
- Family history. child who has a parent or sibling with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, has an increased risk also get ADHD;
- Environmental factors. Some studies show that the use of the mother of alcohol, drug abuse and smoking during pregnancy can lead to the development of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity in children.Low birth weight may sometimes associated with ADHD.Environmental exposure to lead up to 6 years can also increase the risk of ADHD;
- Nutritional factors. Some dietary factors have been studied in connection with ADHD, including sensitivity to certain chemicals in the diet, fatty acid deficiencies (compounds of fats and oils) and zinc, and - the sensitivity to sugar.However, there was no clear evidence that any of these factors, power means the risk factors for ADHD development.
diagnosis of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity
diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children
There is no single test to diagnose ADHD.The doctor conducts a physical examination of the child, to ensure that the underlying condition does not cause ADHD symptoms.However, the diagnosis of "ADHD" is based mainly on observations and child questionnaire, as well as behaviors SAO (this scale of activity and optimism).Child with SAO pediatrician may refer to a psychiatric hospital, where doctors have experience with children's disorders - such as ADHD.
- History behavior. The doctor will ask questions to the detailed history of the child, will identify SAO his behavior.Parents should describe the specific problems arising from child SAO development, family history of ADHD and all the recent changes in family life, which could affect the baby.The doctor will find out everything important about the baby, all the details of his life away from home: written reports from teachers, school psychologists, guardians or others involved with the child, etc.
- Medical examination. Physical examination must include a hearing test to exclude a child any hearing problems.The doctor should know about the history of medical problems, including allergies, sleep disturbances, poor vision, chronic ear infections.
To diagnose ADHD and determination of diagnosis, at least six of the following symptoms must have been present for at least 6 months (children of preschool age - 9 months).
symptoms of inattention (at least six of them have to be):
- children are often unable to pay close attention to details or makes careless mistakes;
- often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or games;
- often do not seem to listen when spoken directly to him;
- often does not finish the task, the task;
- has difficulty organizing tasks and activities;
- avoids or dislikes tasks that require sustained mental effort;
- often loses things necessary for tasks or activities;
- often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli;
- often forgetful in daily activities.
symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity (at least six of them must be present):
- often sitting fidgeting or squirming;
- sits with difficulty when required;
- often working or frequently climbs in inappropriate situations;
- can not play quietly;
- often on the move;
- often talks too much;
- often blurts out answers to questions before they were asked to the end;
- has difficulty waiting their turn;
- often interrupts others.
Based on these symptoms, the child may be diagnosed with ADHD predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive - impulsive type of ADHD or ADHD combined type.
diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults
Children Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can affect children between the ages of 4 and 18 years.ADHD in adults always occurs as a continuation of the children's ADHD.Symptoms, which begin in adulthood, due to factors unrelated to ADHD.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults is often difficult to diagnose.The doctor should know the history or the children's ADHD symptoms.The patient can ask parents or former teachers to provide school records, or other useful information about it.The doctor will ask the patient questions about these types of symptoms:
- inattention and memory problems (the patient may forget or lose things, being distracted, not finishing things, underestimate the time, the order of affairs, he has a problem when starting or changing jobs, halfwayof the transaction);
- hyperactivity and restlessness (the patient is always on the move, fidgety, bored him a little, he tends to take an active and fast paced in the work and activities);
- impulsivity, and emotional instability (the patient says things without thinking, interrupting others, irritated at other people, easily disappointed, his mood is unpredictable, rash);
- problems with self-esteem (the patient avoid new problems, he has a confidence in others, but not himself).
Complications of attention with hyperactivity
Attention Deficit Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can be a problem for children and their families.
- Emotional problems. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, especially those who also have anxiety or depressive disorders typically suffer from low self-esteem.
- Social problems. ADHD can affect children in their relations with their peers.Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may have difficulty with social skills and appropriate behavior, which can lead to bullying (as victim and perpetrator), and rejection.Impulsiveness and aggression can provoke fights and negative relationships with other children.Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and a high level of aggression can be a higher risk of delinquent behavior (antisocial wrongful conduct of the individual embodied in his misconduct - acts or omissions harmful to individual citizens and society as a whole) in adolescence and to criminal activityin adulthood.
- Risk of injury. Impulsivity in young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can lead them to the risk of not thinking about the consequences.Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have an increased risk of accidents and injuries.For example, a child with ADHD can not test the ability to react to oncoming traffic while riding a bicycle or on whether he can engage in high-risk groups with high physical exertion.All these problems of children with ADHD go into their adult life.
- Abuse of alcohol or drugs.