Anorexia nervosa : causes, symptoms, treatment , complications of anorexia
Weight Control / / April 22, 2016
The term "anorexia" literally means loss of appetite.Anorexia nervosa may be associated with diseases or drugs that cause loss of appetite.Anorexia nervosa includes psychological aversion to food, which leads to a state of starvation and malnutrition, weight loss occurs in at least 15% to 60% of normal weight.
Anorexia nervosa is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal behavior of power, severe self-induced weight loss, and psychiatric comorbidity.People with anorexia have a panic fear of gaining weight, which encourages them to maintain weight much less than is normal for their height, age and state of health.They will do everything to avoid weight gain, including fasting.Such people have a distorted view of their body - they think they are fat, even if they are very thin, and will try to maintain their representation in the correct weight and deny the serious consequences that carries their light weight for health.
Anorexia - is, above all, emotional distress, which f
Anorexia nervosa is more common among young women in industrialized countries, where the culture, society and the media cultivated the image of the ideal woman as thin women.Fueled by popular magazines and TV transmissions, anorexia affects more and more people, especially athletes, and public figures.
Today all this disorder most often affects adolescents, in 3 of the 100 modern teenager marked neurological disorders related to his weight.Although anorexia is rarely seen before puberty, however, related mental conditions such as depression and obsessive-compulsive behavior, tend to be more serious.Anorexia is often preceded by a traumatic event, usually accompanied by other emotional problems.
Anorexia is a life-threatening condition that can lead to death from starvation, heart failure, electrolyte imbalance, or suicide.For some people, the disorder is a chronic disease that lasts a lifetime.But treatment can help people suffering from anorexia, to form a healthy lifestyle and avoid the complications of anorexia.
There are two types of anorexia.Patients first type are always trying to lose weight by severely restricting your diet.Others may have too, and then induce vomiting after eating or taking laxatives and diuretics.The condition is characterized by such actions is called bulimia.In the case of bulimia weight patients can also quickly drop to a dangerously low.
Bulimia nervosa is more common than anorexia, and typically begins in early adolescence.For its characteristic cycles of binge eating and purging, and usually occur as follows:
Bulimia often develops when young women are trying to lose weight by restrictive diets, fail, and start to suffer from overeating.Binge eating includes many more food than normal quantity of food for 2 hour period.
Overeating patients compensate, usually by calling vomiting, using enemas or taking laxatives, diet pills, or medicines to remove fluid from the body, and then return to severe dieting and excessive exercise, or both at once.Then the cycle is repeated.In some cases, the condition progresses to anorexia.
Signs and symptoms of anorexia
main feature of anorexia nervosa is a critical weight loss.
Physical signs of anorexia:
- Excessive weight loss
- Scanty menstruation or lack thereof
- Hair Thinning
- Dry skin
- Brittle nails
- cold or swollen hands and feet
stomach - growth of thin fluffyhair all over the body
- Low blood pressure
- constant fatigue
- cardiac arrhythmia
- Permanent chills, and poor circulation
- Fainting or dizziness
Psychological and behavioral symptoms of anorexia
- distorted perception of themselves, the sickinsist that they are overweight, even when they are very thin;
- Always concerned with food, thoughts are focused on food;
- Refusal of food
- memory impairment, confusion, nesobrannost
- Refusal to recognize the disease seriousness
- Skipping meals or excuse, that would not have
- Eating just a few products
- Refusal to eat in public places
- Planning and preparation of complex foods for others but do not eat
- constantly concerned about their weight
- Cut food into small pieces, roll on a plate, but do not eat
- Exhausting physical training
symptoms characteristic of bulimia
- Regular trips to the bathroom immediately after meals
- eating large amounts of food or buying products in large quantities that disappear right
- rupture of blood vessels in the eyes
- Dry, potreskanaya skin at the corners of the mouth
mouth - Patientsgums and enamel erosion from gastric acid released by the vomiting produced
- rash and pimples
Causes of anorexia
There is no one reason for eating disorders.Despite the concerns about weight and body shape, which play an important role in all eating disorders, the real cause of these disorders involves many factors: genetic and neurobiological, cultural and social, behavioral and psychological.
Genetic factors. Anorexia is eight times more common in people who have relatives with the disease.Studies of twins indicate that they have a tendency to share specific eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia, obesity).Researchers have identified specific chromosome that may be associated with bulimia and anorexia.
Biological factors. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system of the body can play a role in eating disorders.This complex system has its origins in these regions of the brain:
- hypothalamus.The hypothalamus is a small structure that plays an important role in the control of behavior, such as eating, sexual behavior, sleep, and regulates body temperature, hunger and thirst, is involved in hormone secretion.
- Pituitary.The pituitary gland is involved in the management of thyroid and adrenal glands, growth and sexual maturation.
- Tonsils.This small almond-shaped structure associated with emotional regulation and control activities, including anxiety, depression, aggression, and affection.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system is involved in the development of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the brain) that regulate stress, mood and appetite.Disturbances in the development of three of them - serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, can play a particularly important role in eating disorders.Serotonin is involved in the well-being, anxiety, and appetite (among other features), decreased levels of serotonin in the brain is one of the factors in the formation of depressions and severe migraines.Norepinephrine is a stress hormone.Dopamine is an important part of the "system of promotion" of the brain, because it causes a feeling of pleasure (or satisfaction), what affects the processes of motivation and learning.An imbalance of serotonin and dopamine may partially explain why people with anorexia do not feel a sense of pleasure from food and other typical amenities.
- Severe trauma or emotional stress (eg, death of a loved one, or sexual abuse) during puberty.
- cultural environment.
- Tendency towards perfection, fear of ridicule or humiliation, the desire to always be "good".The belief that being perfect in appearance, is a prerequisite in order to be loved.
- Family history of anorexia.About a fifth of people with anorexia have a relative with an eating disorder.
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder - anxiety disorder, followed by obsessions, recurrent or persistent mental images, thoughts that can lead to compulsive behavior, which manifests itself in the form of repetitive, rigid and self-prescribed procedures designed to prevent the manifestation of obsession.Women may become obsessed with exercise, diet and food.
- Phobias.Phobias often precede the onset of an eating disorder.Social phobia, when a person is afraid of being humiliated in public, are often found in both types of eating disorders.
- Panic disorder.It is characterized by periodic attacks of anxiety or fear (panic attacks).
- Post-traumatic stress disorder - anxiety disorder, which occurs in response to life-threatening circumstances.
- Depression.Depression is often to blame for anorexia and bulimia.
- Narcissistic personality disorder: the inability to calm themselves, inability to empathize with others, need for admiration, increased sensitivity to criticism or defeat.
- Overweight.Extreme disorders of eating behavior, including the use of diet pills, laxatives, diuretics, and vomiting occur more often in overweight patients than in normal adolescents with normal weight.
Risk factors for anorexia
- Age and gender - anorexia is most common among adolescents and young adult women.
- Increased concern about their own weight, fad diets.
- Weight gain.
- Unintentional weight loss
- Life in industrialized countries
- depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder or other anxiety disorders.Obsessive-compulsive disorders associated with eating disorders are often accompanied by obsessive rituals around food, such as cutting food into small pieces.
- Participation in sports and professional competitions, which demonstrates a beautiful body dancing, gymnastics, jogging, skating, racing, simulation, fighting.
- Constant stress
- Pessimism, a tendency to anxiety, inability to resist the difficult life situations.
- history of sexual abuse or other traumatic events
- Changes in life, such as the transition to a new school, a new job
- Low self-esteem.
diagnosis of anorexia
People with anorexia often believe that they control their illness and need help.But if you or your loved one is experiencing symptoms of anorexia, it is important to seek help in time.If you are a parent who suspects a child anorexia, take your child to the doctor immediately.You may need to spend a few lab tests and undergo a psychological evaluation.
Usually, primary diagnosis, a doctor asks a few simple questions, developed in the UK.Answer "yes" to at least 2 of the following questions is a strong indicator of an eating disorder:
- "Do you feel like a complete (full)?"
- "Are you in full control of how much and what you eat?"
- "You have lost more than 5 kg lately?"
- "Do you believe that you are fat (fat) when others say you are thin (thin)?"
- "Thoughts about food predominate in your life?"
Laboratory tests may include:
- Blood tests for signs of anemia, electrolyte
- tests of liver function and
kidney - ECG can detect abnormal heart rhythms
- test for osteoporosis to determine bone density
tissue - Tests for thyroid function
- Measurement of body mass index.The normal BMI for women over 20 years is 19 - 25 BMI below 17.5 is considered to be the threshold of the risk of health problems associated with anorexia.(However, young teens may have a lower BMI is not necessarily associated with anorexia).
If the diagnosis of anorexia is confirmed, you will most likely have to work with the medical team, including a psychologist or psychiatrist, a nutritionist and a therapist.
Treatment of anorexia
main directions of the treatment of anorexia nervosa are:
- Increasing social activity
- Decrease physical activity
- Using graphs food
main goal of treatment - the restoration of normal body weight and eating habits, weight gain at 0,4 - 1 kg per week.Significantly treatment of physical complications and any complications associated with mental disorders, prevention of recurrence.
most successful treatment for anorexia is a combination of psychotherapy, family therapy, and therapeutic treatments.It is important that he suffers from anorexia took an active part in the treatment.As a rule, patients do not believe they need treatment.It should also be understood that the treatment of anorexia is a long-term task that can last a lifetime.Patients are vulnerable to relapse when passing through the stressful times in their lives.
Cognitive behavioral therapy, along with antidepressants, may be effective for the treatment of eating disorders.Complementary and alternative therapies can help make up the shortfall nutrients.
Hospitalization may be necessary in the following cases:
- ongoing weight loss, despite outpatient treatment
- Body Mass Index (BMI) is 30% below normal.
- Irregular heart rhythm
- Severe depression
- Suicidal tendencies
- Low levels of potassium
- Low blood pressure
even after some weight gain, many patients still quite thin and the risk of relapse is very high.
It should take into account some of the social factors can complicate the recovery process:
- Friends or family who admire slenderness and thinness of the patient
- instructors or sports coaches who promote leanness and slimness
- Refusal of assistance from parents or other family members
- the patient's belief that extreme thinness is not only normal, but also attractive, and that the refusal of food is the only way to not be overweight.
Therefore, the involvement of family members and friends can be helpful during treatment.
lifestyle treatment for anorexia nervosa includes basic lifestyle changes:
- Practice regular eating habits and a healthy diet
- Development of treatment and planning
menu - Participation in a support group, one hundred to help yourself cope with stressand emotional problems
- Getting rid of the habit of constantly weighed
- Reduction of obsessive and exhausting exercise, when it was part of the disease.As soon as the patient gained weight, your doctor may recommend an exercise program to improve your overall health.
Restoration of normal weight and power
food intervention is important and necessary.Weight gain is associated with a decrease in the number of symptoms of anorexia and improving both physical and mental functions.Restoring normal diet can help reduce the loss of bone density.Increasing caloric intake and exercise can normalize the hormonal functions.Recovery weight is also essential, only if the patient can fully benefit from additional psychotherapeutic treatments.