Simple and complex carbohydrates : Do we need them
Healthy Eating And Diet / / August 12, 2017
Carbohydrates (carbon hydrates, carbon compounds and water, sugars, saccharides - a broad class of organic compounds, an essential component of cells and tissues of all living organisms of the animal and plant world is at the mass of the bulk of the organic matter in the world supply of carbohydrates in all living organisms..- plant photosynthesis) are one of the major food components.
main function of carbohydrates - to provide energy for the body, especially the brain and nervous system.The enzyme amylase (glycosyl hydrolase - cleaves starch to oligosaccharides, refers to enzymes digestion, gives rise to a sweet taste during prolonged chewing starch products - rice or potatoes, but without the addition of sugar-amylase present in the saliva, which starts the process of digestion Three types..amylases - alpha, beta and gamma) helps transform carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar) which is used for energy production in the body.
disadvantage of carbohydrates leads to the depletion of glycogen stores
At deficiency of carbohydrates in food tissues and organs are used for the synthesis of energy, not only proteins, but also fats.When enhanced fat breakdown may occur violation of the metabolic processes associated with the accelerated formation and accumulation of ketones in the body.Excessive formation of ketones with enhanced oxidation of fat and partly proteins can lead to a "acidification" the internal environment of the body and poisoning the brain tissue until the development of acidotic coma with loss of consciousness.
Dietary sources of carbohydrate
Carbohydrates are divided into simple or complex (complex).The classification depends on the chemical structure of the food and how quickly the sugar is digested and absorbed.Simple carbohydrates have one (single) or two (double) sugars.Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) have three or more sugars.
Examples of simple carbohydrates (sugars) in food:
- Glucose - most important of all monosaccharides, as it is a structural unit of most food di- and polysaccharides.During metabolism, they are split into individual molecules of monosaccharides that during multistage chemical reactions are transformed into other substances and ultimately oxidized to carbon dioxide and water - are used as "fuel" for the cells.Glucose - a necessary component of carbohydrate metabolism.Glucose "pure" as monosaccharide found in vegetables and fruits.
- Fructose (arabino-geksuloza, levulose, fruit sugar - found in fruits, monosaccharide, ketohexoses - in living organisms present only D-isomer in the free form - almost all sweet fruits and berries as a monosaccharide units included.part lactulose and sucrose);
- Galactose (a simple sugar found in dairy products ;. glucose differs from the spatial arrangement of hydroxyl groups and hydrogen fourth carbon atom Contained in animal and plant organisms, microorganisms number is a part of disaccharides -.. Lactulose and lactose. The oxidation forms galacturonic, and galaktonovuyu mucic acid).
Complex carbohydrates or polysaccharides are polymers of glucose.Of them are:
- Lactose ( «milk sugar" - disaccharide carbohydrate groups present in milk and milk products lactose molecule consists of galactose and glucose molecules residues.);
- Maltose (malt sugar, natural disaccharide composed of two glucose residues - found in some vegetables, beer in large quantities in the sprouted grains of rye, barley and other grains, in tomatoes, as well as pollen and nectar of someplants. The animals and plants maltose is formed by cleavage of starch and glycogen in the enzymes. it is easily digested by the human body. The splitting of maltose is the result of the action of the enzyme a-glucosidase, or maltase, which is contained in the digestive juices of animals and humans, mold fungi and yeasts., sprouted grains genetically determined absence of the mucous membrane of the enzyme leads to human intestinal innate intolerance of maltose - a very serious illness, for which you need an exception maltose, starch and glycogen from the diet or adding to the food enzyme maltase);
- Sucrose (table, cane or beet sugar;?. In a life of simple sugars - a disaccharide of oligosaccharides consisting of two monosaccharides - glucose incorporation -fruktozy and Sucrose is a disaccharide common, it occurs naturally in many fruits and berries. Especially high sucrose content in sugar beet and sugar cane, which are used for industrial production of table sugar sucrose has a high solubility at solidification of the molten sucrose an amorphous transparent mass - caramel)..;
- Honey - also a double sugar.But unlike table sugar, it contains small amounts of vitamins and minerals (Note: Honey should not be given to children younger than 1 year - it can cause them holding your breath and other problems);
- Glycogen - «animal starch" - consists of highly branched chains of glucose molecules.It is contained in small amounts in animal products;
- Starch. starch sources are plant foods, mainly cereals: cereals, flour, bread, and potatoes.
Complex carbohydrates (or "starchy foods") include:
- starchy vegetables;
- whole grain bread and cereals.
Simple carbohydrates that contain vitamins and minerals that are found in nature:
- in fruits;
- in milk and dairy products;
- in vegetables.
Simple carbohydrates are also found in processed and refined sugar:
- in candy;
- in carbonated beverages - water and soft drinks;
- refined sugar, which contains calories, but lack vitamins, minerals and fiber.Such simple sugars often referred to as "empty calories", which can easily lead to weight gain.
Moreover, in many types of refined foods - such as white flour, sugar and white rice - no vitamins and other essential nutrients, unless they are indicated with "vitamin-enriched".Receiving health benefits carbohydrates, vitamins and other natural nutrients may, for example, from fruit (instead of table sugar).
Getting too many carbohydrates can lead to an increase in total caloric intake, causing obesity consume this food.
failure to obtain a sufficient amount of carbohydrates can cause a lack of calories (malnutrition), or excessive intake of fat to make up for the calories.
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Most people should get between 40% and 60% of total calories from carbohydrates, preferablycomplex carbohydrates (starch), and natural sugars.Complex carbohydrates provide calories, vitamins, minerals and fiber.
Foods high in processed, refined simple sugars provide calories, but very little saturated.It is strongly recommended to limit consumption of these sugars.
To increase the healthy nutrients consume complex carbohydrates:
- in fruits and vegetables;
- in the whole grains of rice, bread and cereals, meal (oats, buckwheat, etc.);
- in legumes (beans, lentils, dried peas, mache).
Recommended serving sizes of foods high in carbohydrates:
- Vegetables: 1 cup raw vegetables, or 1/2 cup of cooked vegetables, or 3/4 cup of vegetable juice;
- Fruits: 1 medium-sized fruit (such as 1 medium apple or 1 medium orange), or 1/2 cup of canned or chopped fruit, or 3/4 cup of fruit juice;
- bread and cereals: 1 slice of bread, approx.30 g or 2/3 cup of ready-to-eat cereal, 1/2 cup cooked rice, pasta or grains (cereals);1/2 cup of cooked dry beans, lentils, mung bean or dried peas;
- Milk: 1 cup skim or low-fat milk.
Sample Menu for 2000 calories, of which 50-60% of total calories - carbohydrates:
1 cup grated 1 tablespoon wheat
1 cup skim milk
1 small banana
1 slice wholemeal toast
1 teaspoon soft margarine (butter)
1 teaspoon jelly
Sandwich with turkey:
57 g of whole grain breads
1/4 cup lettuce
2 slices tomato
85g sliced smoked turkey breast
1 tablespoon mayonnaise salad
1 teaspoon yellow mustard glass
apple slices 1 cup tomato juice
Fried (grilled) or loin steak:
142 g grilled pork loin or steak
3/4 cup mashed
2 tspsoft margarine (butter)
1/2 cup grated carrot
1 tablespoon honey
57 g of whole grains
1 cup skim milk
1 cup of low-fat fruit yogurt.