Nutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease
Healthy Eating And Diet / / August 12, 2017
Alternative names: renal disease and diet;kidney disease and diet
If the patient has chronic kidney disease characterized by kidney damage or reduction of their functions for three months or more, it is necessary to make changes in your diet, including:
- limit intake of fluids;
- have a diet low in protein;
- limit intake of salt, potassium, phosphorus, and other electrolytes;
- getting enough calories, if the patient loses weight.Recommended
supply circuit may change over time if the kidney disease progresses, or if the patient moves to dialysis.
The purpose of the special diet - to maintain a balance of electrolytes, minerals, and fluid in patients with chronic kidney disease or who are on dialysis.Patients who are on dialysis, need this special diet in order to limit the accumulation of waste in their body.This waste may occur even during the dialysis procedure.
Most patients in dialysis urinate very little or not urinate at all.Limiting fluid between treatments is very important.Without ur
patient should consult a dietitian to get competent information about the diet for kidney disease.Some dietitians specialize only in diets for kidney patients.A dietitian can help the patient to develop a diet that corresponds to the patient needs.
daily intake of calories the patient should be high enough so that the patient can maintain health and prevent the breakdown of tissues in the body.We recommend the patient to find out from your doctor or a nutritionist, what should be his ideal weight and to check their weight every morning.
- Carbohydrates . If the patient is overweight or if he is suffering from diabetes, it is possible that he will need to limit the amount of carbohydrates in the diet.We recommended to talk about this with your doctor or nutritionist.Otherwise, carbohydrates are a good source of energy for the body.If the doctor has recommended a diet low in protein, the patient may replace calories from protein: fruit, bread, grains or vegetables.These products provide the body with energy, as well as fiber, minerals and vitamins.
caramel, sugar, honey and jelly.If necessary, the patient may even kidney eat high-calorie desserts - such as pies, cakes or cookies, but limit the intake of desserts made from dairy products, chocolate, nuts and bananas.
- Fats. Fats can be a good source of calories.We recommend that patients with chronic kidney disease to make sure that it consumes monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (olive oil, canola oil, safflower oil), to protect the arteries.You must consult your doctor or dietitian about fats and cholesterol, the consumption of which may increase the risk of heart problems.
- Proteins . low-protein diet may be helpful before beginning dialysis.Your doctor or dietitian may recommend a diet with moderate protein diet (1 gram of protein per kilogram of body weight per day).Once a patient with chronic kidney disease have started to do dialysis, he needs to eat more protein.He was, in fact, may be recommended for high-protein diet - fish, poultry, pork or eggs at each meal.This will help the patient to recover lost muscle and other tissues.
Patients on dialysis every day should eat foods high in protein.A doctor or dietitian can suggest it to add to the diet of egg whites, egg white powder or protein powder.
- Calcium and phosphorus. Calcium and phosphorus - two other important mineral in the body, consumption of which also need to be monitored.Even in the early stages of a chronic renal disease, blood phosphorus level may become too high.This can lead to a decrease in calcium level, which will cause the body to pull calcium from bones.This in turn can make the patient's bone brittle or break them.
- Phosphorus . patients with chronic kidney disease need to limit the amount in the diet dairy products (milk, yogurt and cheese), which he uses, because they contain large amounts of phosphorus.You can consume some dairy products with lower levels of phosphorus, including margarine, butter, cream and some other kinds of cheese, cream, sherbet etc.
Fruits and vegetables contain only a small amount of phosphorus, but may contain large amounts of potassium.
Perhaps the patient to prevent bone disease need to take calcium supplements and vitamin D, to control the balance of calcium and phosphorus in the body.To do this, go to the doctor or dietitian and stick to their assignments.
- fluids. In the early stages of chronic kidney disease patients do not have to limit drinking water and to strictly control how much fluid he drinks.But when kidney disease gets stronger or when the patient is on dialysis, it is necessary to control the amount of fluid they all drunk.Between dialysis liquid can accumulate in the body.Excess fluid in the patient's CKD lead to shortness of breath - an emergency situation, where immediate medical attention is required.
Dialysis will help your doctor to find out how much fluid the patient must drink every day.Not recommended for patients with chronic kidney disease to consume too many foods that contain large amounts of water - such as soups, jelly, ice cream, grapes, melons, watermelons, peaches, lettuce, tomatoes, celery etc
Recommended usesmall cups or glasses to drink liquids.
Tips to limit excessive fluid intake:
- Avoid salty foods;
- freeze some juice into ice cube trays and eat it like ice cream (and should consider these ice cubes as a daily amount of liquids);
- stay calm during the hot days.
- Salt . Reducing the amount of sodium (salt) in the diet helps to control blood pressure and keeps the patient from thirst, preventing his body from consuming extra fluid.Patients with chronic kidney disease are likely to need a diet low in salt.
Pay attention to the words on the labels of food products:
- low sodium content;
- no salt (salt-free);
- reduced sodium.
Check all labels to see how much salt (sodium) is contained in the portion of the product.Also avoid products which contains the salt near the beginning of the list of ingredients.Look for products with less than 100 mg of sodium per serving.
Do not use salt in the preparation of hot food and remove the salt shaker from the table.Most other seasonings safe and can be used for flavoring food instead of its salt.
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Do not use salt substitutes because they contain potassium.People with chronic kidney disease should also limit the intake of potassium.
- Potassium . Normal potassium levels in the blood to help the heart beat steadily.However, too much potassium can accumulate when the kidneys do not function well already.Dangerous heart rhythms can lead to death.
Potassium is found in many food groups, including fruits and vegetables.Choosing the right element of each group of products can help control the level of potassium in the body.
- Fruits and vegetables.From fruit patients with chronic kidney disease luchsche choose: peaches, grapes, pears, cherries, apples, berries, pineapple, plums, tangerines and watermelon.Limit or avoid consumption of oranges and orange juice, nectarines, kiwi, raisins or other dried fruit, bananas, melons, nectars, prunes.
Because vegetables are recommended: broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, eggplant, green and dry beans, lettuce, onions, bell (vegetable), peppers, zucchini.
patients with chronic kidney disease is better to limit or completely refuse from consumption of asparagus, avocados, potatoes, tomatoes or tomato sauce, pumpkin and cooked spinach.
- Iron. Patients with renal insufficiency and anemia usually requires additional sources of iron.Many foods contain extra iron - beef liver, beef, pork, chicken, beans, iron-fortified cereals.In chronic kidney disease should discuss your diet with your doctor or nutritionist.