Obstetrics And Gynecology / / August 12, 2017
Gestational diabetes (gestational diabetes mellitus, GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus) - a violation of carbohydrate metabolism.Usually it occurs or is first detected in women during their pregnancy.The prevalence of GDM usually ranges from 1% to 14% depending on the population of women.This type of diabetes develops if the body produces insufficient insulin - pancreatic hormone that regulates the level of the body needs, and serving as a source of blood sugar energy.Sugar, which at the moment the body does not use insulin due to delayed as a reserve.
a woman's body during pregnancy is necessary to produce more insulin in order to take into account the needs of the child.This is especially true in the second half of pregnancy.If a woman can not cope pancreas, blood sugar levels will be higher than normal, and then may develop gestational diabetes.This usually takes mellitus itself after birth, in contrast to other types of diabetes, which are chronic diseases.High blood sugar (glucose) in the blo
Causes and risk factors for gestational diabetes
hormones produced by the body during pregnancy may block the insulin and prevent him to perform his functions.When this happens, the blood glucose level of a pregnant woman can rise.
patient at greater risk for gestational diabetes if:
- during pregnancy, it is greater than 25;
- she has a family history of diabetes;
- she gave birth to a child who weighs more than 4 kg, or a birth defect;
- she had high blood pressure;
- she has too much amniotic fluid;
- she had an unexplained miscarriage or stillbirth;
- she was overweight before pregnancy, etc.
Usually gestational diabetes have no pronounced symptoms or symptoms are mild and do not threaten the life of the pregnant woman.
Symptoms of gestational diabetes
Symptoms may include:
- blurred vision;
- frequent infections, including infections of the bladder, vagina and skin;
- increased thirst;
- frequent urination;
- nausea and vomiting;
- weight loss despite increased appetite.
Diagnosis of gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes usually begins in mid-pregnancy.All pregnant women should be tested for glucose tolerance between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy.Women who have risk factors for gestational diabetes, can pass this test in the very beginning of their pregnancy.
Treatment of gestational diabetes
goals of treatment - support during pregnancy sugar (glucose) in the blood within the normal range and make sure that the child is growing well.
Harmful if gestational diabetes for the child
direct threat to the life and health of a baby with moderate gestational diabetes in pregnant there.It only serves the cause of obesity in children, which can lead to birth complications as women with gestational diabetes tend to have larger babies newborn.This may increase the likelihood of problems during childbirth, including birth trauma due to the large size of the child;painful or bad intergrows joints or other problems in women.after
for mothers increases the risk of cesarean section and high blood pressure.
child in a woman suffering from gestational diabetes, during the first few days of life, most likely will have periods of hypoglycemia - low blood sugar.
There is a slightly increased risk of infant death, when the mother has gestational diabetes progessiruyuschy.Level control sugar (glucose) reduces the risk of blood.
attending physician should have a good observe the patient and her baby throughout her pregnancy.Fetal monitoring will check the size and health of the fetus.The test is very simple and painless for the patient and her baby.The device, which hears and displays your baby's heartbeat (electronic fetal monitor) is placed on the abdomen of a pregnant woman.The attending physician can compare the picture with the child's heartbeat and movements to find out whether the child feels well.
Power with gestational diabetes
best way to deal with gestational diabetes - eating a variety of useful and healthy products.You must learn how to read food labels indicating ingredients and consult with doctors and nutritionists in making decisions about nutrition.We recommend the patient to talk to your doctor or nutritionist if sick - vegetarian or if it is on some other special diet.In general, the diet should be moderate in fat and protein.
In general, when a patient has a gestational diabetes, her diet should be moderate in fat and protein.
we recommend getting the necessary carbohydrates through foods that include fruits, vegetables and complex carbohydrates (such as bread, cereals, pasta and rice).
Less eat foods that contain a lot of sugar - non-alcoholic beverages (soft drinks, syrups, cocktails, fruit drinks, kvass, fruit drinks, etc.), fruit juices and pastries..
See also: Diet for gestational diabetes
If the patient diet gestational diabetes is not controlled by the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood, it may be prescribed medication for diabetes or insulin.However, most women who develop gestational diabetes do not need diabetes medications or insulin.
forecast gestational diabetes and its consequences
Most women with gestational diabetes - in a position to control the level of sugar (glucose) in your blood and to avoid harm to yourself or your child.
high blood sugar (glucose) in the blood is often returned to normal after childbirth.However, women with gestational diabetes after delivery should closely monitor the performance of a regular doctor's appointments to identify possible signs of diabetes.Many women with gestational diabetes it develops more within 5-10 years from the time of the placement of the diagnosis.
patient must necessarily and immediately consult a doctor if she is pregnant, and if she has at the same time there are signs of gestational diabetes.
Prevention of gestational diabetes
begin prenatal care is necessary as soon as possible.Regular prenatal visits to the doctor will help improve the health of both the pregnant woman and the child.
Prenatal screening at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy will help detect gestational diabetes early.
If patient are overweight, it is advisable to reduce weight and body mass index (BMI) to normal levels before becoming pregnant.This will significantly reduce the risk of developing gestational diabetes.