The diet in type 2 diabetes
Healthy Eating And Diet / / April 24, 2016
Alternative names: type 2 diabetes and diet
type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent diabetes) - is a metabolic disease, for which, due to violations of insulin secretion or its mechanisms of interaction with tissue cells, chronic characteristichyperglycemia.This type of disease is associated with insulin resistance, i.e., decrease in tissue sensitivity to insulin, which in the initial stages of type 2 diabetes is synthesized in normal or increased amounts.Diet and decrease patient body weight in some cases to help normalize the carbohydrate metabolism and reduce hepatic glucose synthesis from non-carbohydrate feedstock.Over time, excess secretion of insulin depletes? -cells Of the pancreas and insulin injections are necessary.Type 2 diabetes is approximately 90% of all types of diabetes, and most often occurs in people over 40 years old.Progressing disease is slow.Over time they develop complications of this disease, such as: neuropathy, nephropathy, and micro- and macroangiopathy, retinopathy and ot
If the patient has diabetes type 2, the main focus often is on weight control, because most people with the disease are overweight.
patient can improve the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood, adhering to proper diet (plan) power, which includes:
- as little as possible of calories;
- the amount of carbohydrates - 30-45 g on all food;
- healthy monounsaturated fats.
Examples of foods high in monounsaturated fat include peanut or almond butter, almonds, walnuts.The patient can replace these foods with carbohydrates, but eat these carbohydrates in small portions, because this food is high in calories.You must learn to carefully read the labels on food products with an indication of all incoming ingredients to make the best food choices.
patient can often increase their control over the type 2 diabetes, losing weight (more than 4-5 kg) and increasing physical activity (eg, making walking at least 30 minutes per day).
In addition to lifestyle changes, some people need to take pills or injections of insulin to control sugar (glucose) in the blood.
Nutrition of children with type 2 diabetes
Children with type 2 diabetes have special difficulties.The diet should take into account the number of calories from which children should grow.Children often need three kinds of meals and three snacks to meet their calorie needs.The objectives of the diet should be: healthy weight (the majority of children with diabetes type 2 diabetes are obese) and increased physical activity of the child.
Changes in eating habits and increased physical fitness exercises help improve blood sugar control.At parties during the holidays, and the child can eat a little sweet food.But at other times should be as short as possible to carbohydrate in its diet.People with diabetes type 2 children who eat a cake on his birthday, candy or other sweets should not be in the other, regular, day to eat potatoes, pasta or rice.This change helps to maintain a more stable level of calories and carbohydrates.
One of the most challenging aspects of managing diabetes type 2 is meal planning.The need to work closely with your doctor and a dietitian to develop a diet (plan) power, which will help maintain the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood within the normal range.Nutrition Plan is to give the patient - adult or child - the required amount of calories to maintain a healthy body weight.
Having diabetes type 2 does not mean that the patient must completely abandon any food, but it is necessary to change the list of all the foods that the patient should eat regularly.Recommended to choose foods with a moderate amount of carbohydrates (about 30-45 grams per meal) to help keep under control the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.Products must also provide enough calories to maintain a healthy weight person.Regular monitoring of the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood at home to help the patient to find out how different foods affect blood sugar (glucose) in the blood.
dietitian can help the patient decide how to balance carbohydrates, proteins and fats in his diet.Here are some general guidelines.
number of each type of food that the patient eats depends on:
- the weight of the patient's body;
- how often a patient goes in for sports;
- health risks.
Everyone has individual needs.Work with your doctor and may need a dietitian to develop a meal plan that fits the patient.
Diabetes Food Pyramid divides food into six groups in a range of serving sizes.In diabetes pyramid food groups based on carbohydrates and proteins, but not the types of food.People with diabetes type 2 should have more products from the bottom of the pyramid (grains, legumes, vegetables) and not from the top of the pyramid (fats and sweets).This diet will help to keep each patient heart and all, and the body more healthy.
Another method - the promotion of large servings of vegetables and moderate servings of protein and starch.
- grains, beans and starchy vegetables. Foods such as bread, cereals, beans, rice, pasta and starchy vegetables are at the bottom of the pyramid, and they should serve as the basis for the patient's diet.These foods are rich in vitamins, minerals, fiber and healthy carbohydrates.
However, it is important to eat foods with lots of fiber.We recommend the patient to choose whole grains such as whole grain breads, as well as: crackers, tortillas, bran cereal, brown rice, legumes.Use whole grain or whole-wheat flour in cooking and baking.Choose low-fat breads - croissants, cakes, savory muffin, pita bread.
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- Vegetables . Eat fresh or frozen vegetables without added sauces, fats, or salt.Useful to dark green and yellow vegetables - such as spinach, broccoli, lettuce, carrots and bell (vegetable) pepper.
- Fruits. Eat whole fruits more than juice.Whole fruits have more fiber.Citrus fruits - such as oranges, grapefruits, tangerines and lemons - are the best, the most useful fruit.Fruit juice drink in which no added sweeteners or syrups.
- Milk. Consume low-fat or nonfat milk or yogurt.Yogurt contains natural sugar, but it may also contain added sugar or artificial sweeteners, artificial.The yoghurt with artificial sweeteners fewer calories than yogurt with added sugar.
- Meat and fish . Eat fish and poultry more often.Remove the skin of chicken and turkey (they are not useful).Consume lean beef, veal, pork or game.Cut the meat with all visible fat and cook this meat hot dishes.
- fats, alcohol and sweets . In general, patient type 2 diabetes should limit intake of fatty foods, particularly high in saturated fat - hamburgers, cheese, bacon (or any fatty meat) and any oil.
patient type 2 diabetes better not to drink alcohol.But if he does decide to consume alcohol, you should really limit the amount and take it only with food.You must talk to your doctor about how alcohol affects the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood, as well as to determine the number of its relatively safe for the patient.
Sweets are high in fat and sugar, so portion sizes should be very small.A few tips to help you avoid eating too many sweets:
- take extra spoons and forks, dessert and share with other people;
- to eat sweets that sugar;
- always take small portions;
- learn to carefully read the labels on food products and consult with doctors and nutritionists in making decisions about their diet.