Nutrition and diet in diabetes : the main recommendations
Healthy Eating And Diet / / August 12, 2017
low in carbohydrates and
fats read the labels on
products Weighing and measuring
main power components
carbohydrate counting system
index Low-carbohydrate diets
Whole grains, nutsand fiber-rich foods
Glycemic index of some foods
fat substitutes and artificial sweeteners
protein Poteblenie in diabetes
fats and oils
Vitamins and supplements in diabetes
Alcohol and coffee
weight Control fortype 2 diabetes
For people with diabetes, the goal of food and diet - the following:
- Achieving bolizkih to normal glucose levels in blood. People with type 1 diabetes and diabetes type 2 diabetes who are taking insulin or oral medications must coordinate calorie intake with medication or insulin, exercise, and other variables to control the level of glucose in the blood;
- heart protection and the pursuit of normal lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides), and blood pressure normalization and control;
- Achieving a reasonable weight . Patients with diabetes type 2 diabetes are overweight, who do not take drugs, should stick to the diet, controlling weight and glucose.Reasonable weight - one that normally is real and helps achieve stable and normal blood glucose levels.Children, pregnant women and people recovering from illness, should control the calories in the diet to maintain full health.
There is no such thing as "one diet for diabetes."Patients should meet with a professional nutritionist, an individual diet plan and stick to general recommendations, taking into account their own needs for health.
For example, in patients with type 2 diabetes who are overweight and resistance (the body's resistance to various pathogenic factors - physical, chemical and biological agents that can cause pathological condition) to insulin (insulin resistance - a violation of the metabolic response to endogenous orexogenous insulin, which leads to increased insulin concentration in blood plasma compared to physiological values for the available glucose concentrations) may be a carbohydrate-protein balance, but in malnourished patients with type 1 diabetes - the other, taking into account the danger of these diseaseskidney.
In each situation in choosing a diet for diabetes should consult with professionals.
Here are a few different dietary methods to achieve the objectives described above.For the treatment of diabetes, diet is recommended:
- Carbohydrates should provide 45-65% of total daily caloric intake. type and amount of carbohydrates is important.It is better to eat vegetables, fruits, legumes and whole grains.These products contain a lot of fiber.Patients with diabetes should control their intake of carbohydrates by their counting or meal planning on the list;
- Fats should make up no more than 25-35% of daily calories. better to use monounsaturated fats (such as olive oil or peanut oil, avocado, nuts) and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats (such as fish, flaxseed oil, walnuts).The marginal rate of saturated fat (red meat, butter) - not more than 7% of daily calories.Choose fat-free or very low-fat dairy products instead of whole milk.Limit trans fat (such as hydrogenated - they are in snacks, fried foods, baked goods) - use no more than 1% of total calories;
- Protein should make up 12-20% of the daily caloric , although this may vary depending on the individual patient's health needs.Patients with kidney disease should limit protein intake to less than 10% of daily calories.The protein in fish, soy and poultry - the best protein in red meat;
- Normalization weight , if the body mass index (BMI) of 25-29 (overweight) or greater (obese).
Several different dietary methods available to control the sugar content in the blood of type 1 and insulin-dependent diabetes to type 2 diabetes:
- diabetic lists (in order to maintain the proper balance of carbohydrates, fats and proteins during the day);
- carbohydrate counting (to keep track of the number of grams of carbohydrates consumed each day);
- glycemic index (tracking carbohydrates and an increase in blood sugar).
Patients with suspected or established diabetes should consult a dietitian knowledgeable about nutrition in diabetes.Experienced dietician can give valuable advice and help create a personalized diet plan.
Even a small weight loss can improve insulin resistance (the basic problem in type 2 diabetes) in people with diabetes who are overweight or obese.Physical activity, even without weight loss, are also very important.
recommended intake of healthy, high-fiber, foods, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes.But it is also important to monitor your carbohydrate intake by counting carbohydrates and exchange.
The glycemic index measures how quickly carbohydrate-containing food raises blood sugar levels may be a useful addition to counting carbohydrates.
low in carbohydrates and fats
Planned weight loss restrict the content of dietary carbohydrates or fats and can help reduce weight in a short period of time (up to 1 year).
most important component of a weight loss plan are not dietary composition, but the willingness of the people to stick to the plan.Both plan - with a low content of carbohydrates and fats - work equally well, and patients may have personal preferences to any of them.
Patients with kidney disease need to limit protein intake.You can not replace carbohydrates with plenty of protein foods (except for patients on dialysis - they need more protein).
changes in lifestyle, diet and exercise are very important for people who have previously been diagnosed "diabetes" or who are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.Lifestyle can be very important in preventing or postponing the progression of diabetes.These measures are especially important for people with overweight.Even moderate weight loss can reduce the risk of diabetes.
We recommend that people with a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes foods high in fiber (14 g of fiber for every 1,000 calories), and whole grains.High protein intake, especially whole grain cereals and bread, can help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
patients with the diagnosis "diabetes" should be aware of its power, to monitor the health of the heart, to deal with high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
Read food labels
Each year there are thousands of new food products, many of them are advertised as useful.But it is important for everyone, especially for people with diabetes, advertised and differentiate genuine.Data on food labeling show the number of calories from fat, the amount of potentially hazardous nutrients (fat, cholesterol, sugar and sodium) and mineral nutrients (fat, carbohydrates, proteins and vitamins).It also indicates the proportion of the daily diet, as each of the essential nutrients available in one portion.Often it is higher than it should be in the majority of patients with diabetes mellitus, and portion sizes can be equivalent in diabetic lists.Most people need to count calories and grams listed on food labels, in accordance with the size of personally consumed portions and calories.
Weighing and measuring
Weighing and measuring food is extremely important to get the right amount of daily calories.Along with measuring cups and spoons, choose food, measured in grams.The food should be weighed and measured after preparation.
After measuring all the products for a week, most people can make a fairly accurate assessment on the eye, without the measurements.
Patients with diabetes should not skip meals, especially if they take insulin.Skipping meals can upset the balance between food intake and insulin, and may also lead to low blood sugar and weight gain if the patient eats extra food to make up for hunger and low blood sugar.
Mealtime is particularly important for people taking insulin.
Patients should coordinate insulin administration with calories.They need to be fed three times a day at regular intervals.Frequent meals needed.
Some doctors recommend rapid-acting insulin before each meal and basal insulin at night.
Diabetes can lead to kidney disease.People with early-stage renal disease is necessary to observe a special diet that slows the accumulation of waste in the blood and limiting protein, potassium, phosphorus and salt.Fats and carbohydrates, may need to be increased - to save weight and muscle tissue.
people in the later stages of kidney disease usually require dialysis.When patients on dialysis, they need more protein in their diet.Patients should be very careful with the restriction of salt, potassium, phosphorus and liquids.
main components of power
- Carbohydrates. Compared with fats and proteins, carbohydrates have the greatest impact on blood sugar (glucose).Besides dietary fibers which are not digestible carbohydrates are transformed in the body into glucose.Carbohydrates come in many types: complex (starches) and simple (fruits and sugar).
One gram of carbohydrate contains 4 calories.Carbohydrates should provide between 45-65% of your daily caloric intake.Carbohydrate intake should not fall below 130 g / day.
Complex carbohydrates are broken down by the body more slowly than simple.They provide nutrients and other fibers.Vegetables, fruits, whole grains and beans are good sources of carbohydrates.Whole grains provide more nutritional value than pasta, white bread and white potatoes.Brown rice for diabetics healthier than white.
Patients should try to consume at least 20-38 grams of fiber every day (or even up to 50 g / day) of fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, whole grain foods - cereals and breads.Whole grains are extremely important for people with diabetes and those whom he threatens.
Simple carbohydrates or sugars (sucrose and fructose) were added calories quickly raise blood glucose levels are low and nutrient.Sucrose (table sugar) is a source of dietary sugar, cane sugar, corn syrup and honey.
- Fructose. Fructose - sugar found in fruits, - less increases blood sugar level than sucrose.Moderate amounts of fructose in fruit can be processed without a significant increase in liver blood sugar.But large amounts of soda and other foods with high fructose (corn syrup) inhibit healthy liver mechanisms and cause the formation of harmful fats triglycerides.
- Lactose. third sugar - lactose - the natural sugar found in dairy products, including yogurt and cheese.
People with diabetes should avoid foods that contain more than 5 grams of sugar per serving, and some doctors recommend a limit of consumption of fruit.Not useful sugar-sweetened beverages.Fructose is digested differently than other sugars and can significantly raise the level of triglycerides.
Also avoid processed foods of any sort with the addition of sugar.Note the ingredients in food labels, indicating the presence of added sugar (sweeteners, syrups, fruit concentrates, corn syrup, dextrose, and sucrose).
system of counting carbohydrates
Some people plan their intake of carbohydrates via carbohydrate counting system.All carbohydrates (sugars, starch, etc.) raise blood sugar in the same extent, though this lifting speed level depends on the type of carbohydrate.
Carbohydrates have the greatest impact on blood sugar levels.Fats and proteins play a minor role in this process.
In other words, the amount of carbohydrates (not fat or protein) will determine how the high rise in blood sugar levels.
There are two ways to count carbohydrates: simple and advanced.In both cases, it is important to consult a dietician.The patient must learn how to count carbohydrates and adjust insulin doses to the food was flexible, with a more precise forecast increase in blood sugar.The main purpose of this is to provide power balance insulin with the amount of carbohydrates and glucose control in the blood after a meal.
patient should carefully record the factors that are used to determine the specific requirements for food, plan based on counting carbohydrates in grams.
patient plans with a dietitian, how many grams of carbohydrates per day it needs.There are three groups of carbohydrates: bread / starch, fruit, and milk.One serving from each group should contain 12-15 grams of carbohydrates (the amount of carbohydrates in the products can be found on the labels on the products, books and Web sites.)
nutritionist creates a meal plan, which includes the weight of the patient and his needs, making a special paymentcarbohydrate to insulin ratio.This ratio determines the amount of carbohydrates per gram that patients receiving insulin should be counted daily before meals.As a result, patients can learn to adjust their dose of insulin in relation to nutrition.In this case, patients should continue to monitor the amount of protein and fat in food, following the basic principles of healthy eating.
glycemic index helps to determine which products uglevodosoderzhaschih more or less rapidly improves blood glucose levels after a meal.This index number is used for specific products, reflecting a greater or smaller increase in blood sugar levels after eating.The lower the index, the better the effect of the product on the blood glucose level of a person.
two indexes are generally used: scale from 1 to 100 (100 - glucose, which gives the most rapid rise in blood sugar);range from 100 - products above 100.
Choosing foods with a low glycemic index often has a significant impact on the control of blood sugar levels after eating.Many of these foods are also high in beneficial fiber.Control of the low or high glycemic index foods may also help to control their weight.
One simple way to improve the glycemic index in your diet - is to replace starches and sugars in the whole grains and legumes (peas, beans and lentils).However, in reality, there are many factors that affect the glycemic index of food, and maintaining a diet with a low glycemic index does not help so simple.That is, we should not use the glycemic index as the only dietary guidance, since it is not for all products equally suitable.This is just an example of how the metabolism can react to certain carbohydrates.
Such diets restrict the amount of carbohydrates but not protein sources.l.l.l.l.l.l.