Gastroenterology / / May 10, 2016
stomach cancer video
Stomach cancer - a malignant tumor originating from the epithelium of the gastric mucosa.One of the main alternative name - adenocarcinoma of the stomach.
stomach is part of the digestive system, hollow organ in the upper abdomen, under the ribs.Food passes into the stomach from the mouth, through the esophagus.In the stomach, food becomes a liquid.The muscles in the stomach wall pushing the fluid into the small intestine.
stomach wall consists of five layers:
- an inner layer or lining (mucosa).In most cases of stomach cancer starts in this layer;
- submucosa - is to support the inner layer of the fabric;
- muscle layer - this layer muscle is mixed and ground meat;
- connective tissue (subseroza) - is the support tissue for the outer layer;
- the outer layer (serous) - it covers the stomach and supports the stomach.
cancer cells begins building blocks that make up the fabric.From tissues, in turn, comprise the body's organs.Normally, cells grow and divide to form new c
However, sometimes this process is disturbed, and proceeds differently.New cells form when the body does not need them, and old or damaged cells do not die as they should.The accumulation of additional cells often forms a mass of tissue, called a "neoplasm", "polyp" or "tumor".
stomach tumors may be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).Benign tumors are not as harmful as malignant.
- rarely a threat to life;
- can be removed and usually do not grow again;
- not penetrate into the tissue around them;
- do not spread to other parts of the body.
- may pose a greater threat to life;
- it can often be removed, but can sometimes grow back;
- can invade nearby tissues and organs and damage them;
- could spread to other parts of the body.
Stomach cancer usually begins in the cells of the inner layer of the stomach.Over time, cancer can invade and into the deeper layers of the stomach wall.Gastric tumor can grow through the outer layer of the body in adjacent organs - the liver, pancreas, esophagus, intestines.
cells of gastric cancer can spread, breaking away from the original tumor.They enter the blood or lymphatic vessels, which ramify all tissues.Cancer cells can be found in the lymph nodes in the stomach.These cells can spread to other tissues and grow to form new tumors that may damage these tissues.
The spread of cancer is called metastasis.
types of gastric cancer
cells that form tumors, determine the type of gastric cancer.type cells in gastric cancer helps determine the patient's treatment options.Types of stomach cancer are:
- Adenocarcinoma - cancer that begins in the glandular cells.The glandular cells lining the innermost layer of the stomach wall and secrete a protective slime layer - to protect the gastric mucosa from the acidic digestive juices.Adenocarcinoma accounts for the majority of all cases of gastric cancer;
- Lymphoma - cancer that begins in cells of the immune system.Stomach walls contain small amounts of immune cells which may develop cancer.Lymphoma in the stomach is rare;
- Carcinoid cancer - cancer that begins in the hormone-producing cells.Hormone-producing cells can develop carcinoid cancer, but this type of cancer is rare in the stomach;
- stromal tumors - cancer that begins in the tissues of the nervous system.Gastrointestinal stromal tumors begin in specific cells of the nervous system in the stomach.This is the most rare form of stomach cancer.
Due to the fact that the last three kinds of rare stomach cancer, when people use the term "stomach cancer" they are usually referring to adenocarcinoma.
Stomach cancer also classified according to the location of the tumor in the body:
- cardia cancer otdela- area pischevodno- gastric junction;
- cancer of the lower third of the esophagus;
- cancer of the stomach body;
- cancer of the antrum (output card);
- cancer of the stomach angle (the angle between the stomach and duodenum);
- total defeat at the infiltrative gastric cancers .
Causes and risk factors of gastric
Adenocarcinoma Cancer starts with one of the most common cell types found in the gastric mucosa.
Doctors seldom know why one person develops cancer of the stomach, and the other - no.The exact cause of stomach cancer is unknown, but several factors may increase the risk of this disease.
Let us consider some of the risk factors for cancer of the stomach:
- Paul. Men have twice the risk of developing stomach cancer than women;
- Race. blacks and Asians may increase the risk;
- Genetics. Genetic abnormalities and inherited cancer syndromes, some may increase the risk;
- Geography. Stomach cancer is more common in Japan, Eastern Europe and parts of Central and South America;
- Blood. People with the 1st blood group may be at increased risk;
- Older age. gastric cancer is more common between the ages of 70 males and 74 - in women;
- Heredity. family history of gastric cancer can double or triple the risk of developing this type of cancer.The disease often develops in several close relatives (parents, brothers, sisters, children, etc.), persons with a history of gastric cancer.The more close relatives with a history of gastric cancer, the higher the risk;
- Poor diet, lack of physical activity, obesity. Studies show that people who use a diet low in fruits and vegetables and high in salted, pickled and smoked, and smoking - are at increased risk of developing gastric cancer.On the other hand, people who enjoy a diet high in fresh fruits and vegetables may have a lower risk of the disease.Lack of physical activity can also increase the risk of stomach cancer.In addition, people who are obese may have an increased risk of cancer in the upper part of the stomach.;
- Infection with Helicobacter Pylori (Helicobacter pylori, or H. Pylori).Helicobacter pylori - the bacterium that infects the inner lining of the stomach.Infection with H. Pylori can cause stomach inflammation and ulcers, as well as increase the risk of stomach cancer.But only a small number of infected people develop stomach cancer.
- gastrointestinal disease , including: chronic gastritis, pernicious anemia, gastric polyps, intestinal metaplasia - up to the resection of the stomach, long-term inflammation of the stomach and the stomach swelling for a long time (chronic atrophic gastritis).People who have a disease associated with long-term inflammation of the stomach, are at increased risk of developing stomach cancer.In addition, people who have been part of the stomach is removed, may have long-term inflammation of the stomach and an increased risk of stomach cancer many years after surgery.
- Smoking. Smokers are more likely than non-smokers, develop stomach cancer.Heavy smokers are most at risk.
- Polyps in the stomach more than 2 centimeters;
- Nekotrye profession, such expedition working in coal mining, nickel, rubber processing, wood and works by exposure to asbestos.
Doctors know that people with certain risk factors are more likely than others to earn a cancer of the stomach.A risk factor is something that may increase the likelihood of getting the disease.However, many people do not develop stomach cancer by known risk factors.For example, many people have H. Pylori infection but never develop cancer.On the other hand, there are people who develop stomach cancer and who thus have no known risk factors (the cause of their cancer is unknown).
Symptoms of stomach cancer
- symptoms in the early stages of stomach cancer. In the early stages of stomach cancer in a patient can be very few symptoms.These may include:
- indigestion and stomach discomfort;
- bloated feeling after eating;
- recurrent abdominal pain, aching, nagging, blunt (under the left edge of the ribs), often occurring after a meal
- mild nausea;
- loss of appetite;
- difficulty swallowing;
- vomiting blood or blood in the stool.
These symptoms are similar to those caused by the ulcer.In most cases, these symptoms are associated with cancer.If the patient experiences any of these symptoms, he should consult a doctor to find out the correct diagnosis and early treatment.
.Rak stomach can become very large before it causes other symptoms
- The symptoms of stomach cancer at advanced stages. In more advanced stages of cancer can be:
- palpable tumor in the upper and middle parts of the abdomen;
- blood in the stool (which looks like a black, tarry stool);
- vomiting blood - "coffee grounds";
- an increase in the size of the stomach;
- jaundice or pallor of the skin due to anemia;
- weakness or fatigue associated with moderate anemia (lack of red blood cells in the body);
- swollen lymph nodes, supraclavicular priemuschestvenno the left, the left axillary lymph nodes and around the navel.
Diagnosis of gastric cancer
If a patient has symptoms suggestive of stomach cancer, his doctor will check whether they are associated with cancer or any for some other reason.The doctor may refer the patient to a gastroenterologist (a specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of digestive problems).However, if any patient vague symptoms - such as diarrhea, weight loss, nausea and loss of appetite, it screening tests may be recommended.These tests may include:
- Medical history. doctor will ask about the patient's personal and family health history;
- Medical examination. doctor touched his stomach - whether there is fluid, swelling, or other changes.Also, the doctor will check to see whether the lymph nodes are enlarged, and if the liver and fluid in the abdominal cavity increased (ascites), not whether abdominal lumps felt during rectal examination;
- Endoscopy (gastroscopy). The doctor uses a thin tube (endoscope) through the mouth to the esophagus and into the stomach to look.He primarily numbs the throat spray anesthetic.The patient may receive medicine to help him relax;
- biopsy. The endoscope integrated tool to remove tissue.The physician uses an endoscope to remove tissue from the stomach tissue check under a microscope for the presence of cancer cells.A biopsy is the only sure way to know whether there are cancer cells in the stomach;
If the biopsy shows that a patient with stomach cancer, the doctor needs to learn the stage (stage, degree) of the disease to help patients choose the best treatment.Thus, it carried out a careful attempt to find out the following:
- how deep the tumor penetrates the stomach wall;
- whether the tumor has invaded nearby tissues in the stomach;
- if the cancer has spread, in any part of the body.When
gastric cancer spreads, cancer cells may be detected in nearby lymph nodes, liver, pancreas, esophagus, intestines or other organs.To test these regions, a physician may prescribe other analyzes.
- esophagogastroscopy.Examination of the esophagus and the stomach, produced by using flexible fiberoptic endoscopy, which create favorable conditions not only for examination, but allow using a special tool to obtain material for cytology and perform a biopsy.
- Diagnostic laparoscopy. This operation is performed under intravenous anesthesia through punctures in the abdominal wall where the camera is introduced for inspection of the abdominal cavity.Used study in unclear cases, as well as to detect sprouting tumor into the surrounding tissue, and liver metastases, and peritoneal biopsy.
- X-ray contrast agent. This X-ray of the esophagus, stomach and first part of the intestine.The patient drinks barium, which outlines the stomach on an x-ray.This helps the doctor by using a special imaging equipment, to find possible tumors or other abnormal areas;
- CT and MRI. Once diagnosed with cancer of the stomach, can be done more tests to determine if it has spread.These tests may include: CT scan, MRI scan, bone scan.X-ray machine linked to a computer takes a series of detailed pictures of the patient organs.The patient may receive an injection of dye which makes abnormal areas easily visible.Tumors in the liver, the pancreas, or elsewhere in the body can also be seen on the CT scan;
- Analyses. Complete blood count to check for anemia, a test to check for blood in the stool.
: - chest x-ray. X-rays can show whether cancer has spread to the lungs;
- Ultrasonic endoscopy. doctor passes a thin tube of the endoscope into the throat.A probe at the end of the tube sends inaudible sound waves.These waves are reflected from tissue in the stomach and other organs.Computer generated image with an echo.The picture can show how deeply the cancer invaded the stomach wall.Your doctor may use a needle to take a sample of the patient lymph node tissue;
- Stage 0 - the tumor is found only in the inner layer of the stomach.Stage 0 is also called "carcinoma in situ".
- Stage I is one of the following actions Cancer:
- the tumor has invaded only the submucosa.Cancer cells can be found only in the lymph nodes of 06/01;
- the tumor has invaded the muscle layer or subserozu.Cancer cells have not spread to lymph nodes or other organs.
- Stage II is one of the following actions Cancer:
- the tumor has invaded only the submucosa.Cancer cells have spread to the lymph nodes 7-15;
- the tumor has invaded the muscle layer or subserozu.Cancer cells have spread to 1-6 lymph nodes;
- the tumor has penetrated into the outer layer of the stomach.Cancer cells have not spread to lymph nodes or other organs.
- Stage III is one of the following actions Cancer:
- the tumor has invaded the muscle layer or subserozu.Cancer cells have spread to the lymph nodes 7-15;
- tumor penetrated the outer layer.Cancer cells have spread to the lymph nodes 1-15;
- the tumor has invaded adjacent organs - liver, large intestine or spleen.Cancer cells have not spread to lymph nodes or distant organs.
Stage IV is one of the following actions Cancer:
- cancer cells have spread to more than 15 lymph nodes;
- the tumor has invaded nearby organs and at least one lymph node;
- cancer cells have spread to distant organs.
Sometimes, immediately after surgery to remove the tumor and nearby lymph nodes, setting the stage of gastric cancer is not complete.When stomach cancer spreads from its original site to other parts of the body, the new tumor has the same abnormal cells with the same name as the primary (original) tumor.For example, if stomach cancer spreads to the liver, the cancer cells in the liver, in fact - is a gastric cancer cell.This disease is metastatic cancer of the stomach, but not liver.For this reason, it is considered as gastric cancer, not liver cancer.Doctors call the new tumor "distant" or metastatic disease.