Diet for obesity
Gastroenterology / / May 07, 2016
In the second half of the XX century, there is an increased frequency of impaired metabolic diseases (arteriosclerosis, cholelithiasis, diabetes, obesity and others.).Among the adult population of economically developed countries face obese make up 20-30%.The proportion of obese among children and young persons.
prevalence of obesity and serious complications to which it leads, allow to carry it among the most important problems of modern medicine.Unfortunately, still there is a perception that "obesity is not a disease;as a result, many patients seek medical help when obesity reaches severe or complicated by other diseases.
Obesity leads to premature old age, disability.It is not only a cosmetic disadvantage a person's appearance, but it leads to the defeat of almost all body systems.First of all, suffer from cardio-vascular system (atherosclerosis, hypertension), hepatobiliary system is affected, often developing liver disease such as cholecystitis, cholelithiasis.A person with overweight early star
Recognize the base form of obesity is not easy, even a doctor.There are different ways to determine ideal body weight: special nomograms, tables, which are based on growth rates, age, gender.
The following classification of obesity: I degree - excess body weight is 15 to 29%, II degree - from 30 to 49%, III degree - from 50 to 99% and IV degree - more than 100%.
lead to obesity and eating disorders decreased physical activity (physical inactivity).Malnutrition is expressed in excess caloric intake and quality deviations in a ratio of nutrients and products.There is also a violation of the rhythm of food intake during the day shift in the evening hours.
In the complex treatment of patients with obesity leading place belongs to dietetics.Its main principles of obesity are as follows:
- appointed low-calorie (reduced) diet;
- limited use of carbohydrate (sugar, jam, confectionery);
- in the diet decreases the amount of animal fats, vegetable fats increases the number of (up to 50% of total fat);
- satiety is reached fractional frequent meals (eating 5-6 times a day) and the use of products, significant in terms of volume, but low-calorie (fruits and vegetables);
- limited use of salt (up to 5 grams per day) and the liquid (up to 1.2 to 1.5 liters) to normalize the water-salt metabolism;
- are completely excluded spices, savory snacks, stimulating the appetite;
- used contrast (unloading) days.
for the treatment of obesity with diet № 8. caloric 1800-2000 kcal.A diet containing a normal amount of protein of 100-110 g, 80-90 g of fat and a reduced amount of carbohydrates to 120-200 g in the diet of patients on this diet contains foods rich in protein: meat, fish, cheese, eggs, cheese.Meat dishes are prepared with lean beef, lean poultry.Permitted "Doctor's" sausage, dietary sausage, lean ham.The fish also consume lean: cod, hake, pike.skim cheese are from dairy products (100-200 g per day), milk drinks and lactic acid.Soups prepared vegetarian, 1-2 times a week can allow the soup on low meat or fish broth.Widely used in the diet of obese patients a variety of vegetables, in the form of salads and as a garnish for dishes (cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, carrots, green peas).Potatoes are limited to 200 g per day.Recommended unsweetened fruit and berries (apples, lemons, oranges, red currants, cranberries, gooseberries, etc..).They can be used both as stewed fruit, juice, and raw.Value of vegetables, fruit and vegetables is still in the fact that they are a source of vitamins and minerals, rich in fiber, which has a positive effect on intestinal peristalsis.
from the diet completely exclude sugar, honey, jam, candy, chocolate, baking, confectionery.
bread is recommended to use in the amount of 100-150 g Cereal and pasta, as a rule, are excluded or are in small quantities due to the bread.Instead sometimes sugar sweeteners can be used: sorbitol or xylitol (less than 25-30 grams per day).From drinks recommended tea, tea with milk, weak coffee, vegetables, fruit and berry juice (unsweetened), alkaline mineral water (Borjomi).Total liquid (with soup) should be consumed 5-6 glasses a day.
fats - butter and vegetable oil (40 g per day) are added to cooked dishes fresh.
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- Slimming Diets
1st breakfast.Meat 100g boiled vegetables with vegetable oil, coffee or tea without sugar.
2nd breakfast.Cheese 100 g fat, tea or milk.
Lunch.Vegetarian Borscht (1/2 portion), 100 g of beef stroganoff with braised carrots, stewed apples on xylitol.
Snack.Apple, broth hips.
Dinner.Boiled fish with boiled potatoes and tea.
the night.1 cup Kefir.
Full day of 100-150 g of rye bread or bran.
meal time is consistent with the mode of the day, depending on the operation time.Strictly following the diet, you need to 1 times a week to arrange fasting day: meat (400 g of boiled meat without salt), cheese (400-500 g fat-free yogurt), prostokvashny or kefir (1.5 liters per day), sour cream (300-400g sour cream), fruit, berries, vegetables (1.5 kg).The use of liquid these days should be reduced to 600
the treatment of obesity can not be ignored, and the factor of inactivity, so at the same time in compliance with the diet is necessary to increase physical activity.An obese patient should engage in physical exercises, walk a lot, desirable occupations in health groups, or classes available sports (skiing, swimming).
For the prevention of obesity in childhood is necessary to bring moderation in eating.Eating should be at one and the same time without making big breaks between meals, do not eat at night.It is impossible to misuse certain kinds of foods (sweets, confectionery).At the same time you need to lead an active life, move more, more often in the open air.