Colitis : causes of colitis , colitis symptoms , colitis treatment
Gastroenterology / / May 02, 2016
colitis - an inflammation of the colon, a term used to describe inflammation of the large intestine.Colitis contributes to many causes, including infection, poor blood circulation and the body's autoimmune responses.
Colon is located in the abdominal cavity and consists of several parts: the cecum, ascending colon, transverse, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anus.The right side of the colon includes the blind and ascending colon.The left side of the colon includes a transverse segment of the sigmoid colon.The colon is responsible for the collection and storage of waste digestion.It is a long muscular tube, the length of which varies from 90 to 150 cm, pushes undigested food to the anus for the final disposition of the process of defecation.
food is digested in the stomach in liquid suspension, which passes through the small intestine, where the absorption of nutrients for use in the body.When this mixture enters the colon, it is mixed with mucus and intestinal bacteri
Like any other organ, the colon is the blood supply to the arteries that deliver oxygen-rich blood and nutrients, and the veins leading out carbon dioxide and lactic acid from it.Diseases that disrupt blood flow can also cause inflammation of the colon.
colitis Colitis can be caused by many things:
- infections, including those caused by viruses, parasites, and food poisoning due to the food bacteria;
- Inflammatory diseases (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease);
- Lack of blood flow (ischemic colitis);
- chemical intoxication of the colon;
- Autoimmune causes.
- Heredity. One of the most common causes of colitis is heredity.Studies have shown that some people may inherit a genetic mutation that predisposes them significantly to the development of colitis, however, the fact that genes play a role in the onset of colitis, is still being debated.
- Antibiotics. Some medications may contribute to the inflammatory process in the colon.This is largely due to the way these antibiotics interact with bacteria in the stomach.Each healthy person are naturally occurring bacteria that are in their body and help the digestive system.Antibiotics can disrupt the balance of bacteria causing the rapid growth of some strains.This may then cause irritation and inflammation of the colon mucosa, resulting in an colitis.
- Autoimmune causes. Autoimmune causes of colitis, another fairly common belief among scientists that the immune system of some people can influence the development of colitis.When a person is sick, the immune system tries to fight off infection is inevitable.For most people, the immune system is fighting a bacterial violation without any problems.But for some, this natural protective mechanism may cause irritation and inflammation of the digestive system, causing colitis.In other people, the immune system can begin to deal with their own body tissues, thus destroying the organs and tissues of the body by its own immune system (due to the emergence of some autoimmune diseases), again causing colitis.
- Stress. scientists are less likely to believe that stress is a direct cause of colitis in adults, but there is a link between stress and symptoms of colitis flare that makes this external factor important part of the therapeutic treatment of humans.
Many bacteria commonly found in the colon, they live in harmony with the body and does not cause symptoms.However, if these bacteria are pathogenic bacteria absorbed contaminated foods, they can infect the small intestine or colon.This so-called "food poisoning".
Common bacteria infecting the intestine:
- Shigella (Shigella).Dysentery - shigellosis, flowing with signs of intoxication and hitting the distal colon.
- Escherichia coli (E Coli), causing severe food poisoning in humans.
- Salmonella (Salmonella), causes various intestinal diseases.
- Campylobacter (Campylobacter).
All of these infections can cause bloody diarrhea and result in significant dehydration.
Parasites such as giardia, can also cause significant diarrhea.The parasite enters the body by ingestion of contaminated water.The source of water can be both from the river or lake, and pool.Water from wells or cisterns can also be contaminated.
Another type of infectious colitis - pseudomembranous colitis caused by the bacterium Clostridium (Clostridium).This disease is commonly seen in patients who have recently received antibiotics to treat infections.Antibiotics alter the normal flora of bacteria in the colon, causing an overgrowth of Clostridium bacteria.Clostridium produce a toxin that causes diarrhea.This infectious disease is accompanied by fever, diarrhea, usually without blood impurities.
arteries that supply blood to the colon, are narrowed due to atherosclerosis, just as the constriction of blood vessels in the heart can lead to angina or narrowing of blood vessels in the brain can cause a stroke.When colon artery narrowing, may disrupt its blood supply, blood flow becomes restricted or limited blood vessels can become inflamed, this may lead to the development of colitis.This restriction of blood flow may be due to a number of different disorders and even treatment of these disorders.This may be due to fat, diabetes, hernia or infection.
Violation of the blood supply to the colon may also occur for mechanical reasons.For example, volvulus or strangulated hernia, when a part of the large intestine becomes trapped protruding abdominal wall, which prevents blood flow to the affected part.
Ischemic colitis may occur if blood pressure drops.This may occur with dehydration, anemia, or mechanical injuries with blood loss.
ischemia or circulatory disorders in the colon causes severe pain, fever and bloody stools.
Inflammatory bowel disease
There are two types of inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.Ulcerative colitis
considered an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the colon and cause inflammation.Ulcerative colitis begins in the rectum and may gradually spread throughout the colon.Signs and symptoms include abdominal pain and bloody stools.
Crohn's disease can affect any part of the digestive tract from the esophagus and the stomach, small and large intestine, until the rectum.The lesions, that is sick region alternate with healthy tissue sections.
two diseases account for this group of colon inflammation, collagen colitis and lymphocytic colitis.These diseases and inflammation occur when the colon wall filled with collagen or lymphocytes.Watery, no bloody diarrhea is the most common symptom.
This is an unusual disease that is more common in older women.The cause is unknown, but an autoimmune cause can not be excluded.
If chemicals are accumulated into the large intestine, inflammation and damage may occur.One of the complications enemas - an inflammation of the colon mucosa caused by aggressive chemicals.
symptoms of colitis
colitis symptoms will depend on the type of colitis that is present, but in general, colitis is most often associated with abdominal pain and diarrhea.Other symptoms of colitis, which may or may not be present
symptoms of colitis may include:
- Persistent or recurrent abdominal pain and bloating.
- bloody stools.Diarrhea can sometimes cause hemorrhoids that may bleed.However, when blood no defecation is normal;
- Constant urging to stool;
- Dehydration.dehydration symptoms include dizziness, weakness, decreased urination, dry mouth, on the surface of the skin and eyes;
1. Physical examination. colitis diagnosis begins with a thorough medical history collection.Since the symptoms are usually abdominal pain and diarrhea, it is important to identify the beginning and duration of the pain and all other symptoms or complaints that may be in a patient.Since most causes of diarrhea are relatively benign and dismissive, may be asked to search for the reasons listed above.
important question is whether there is blood in the bowel movements (stool).In addition to the symptom of colitis, the colon cancer is another important cause blood in the stool and that symptom should not be ignored (as mentioned earlier, blood in stool is not normal and should not be ignored).
Some questions that you may be asked:
- Time of occurrence of symptoms;
- How long have these symptoms;
- The duration and nature of the pain;
- Frequency and duration of diarrhea;
- What medications you have taken in recent years;
- whether you traveled recently (drank from the well or the river in the campaign, were it possible to become infected by parasites, such as Giardia);
- if unusual diet There have;
- Questions relating to lifestyle;
- Are there peripheral vascular disease or narrowing of the arteries;
- Do you have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes;
- Do you smoke;
- Are there any other complaints.
Physical examination will focus on the abdomen.The doctor will examine the stomach for an abnormally enlarged organs such as the liver, spleen and kidneys.It may take a rectal examination, which is of paramount importance.Using your finger, the doctor examines the rectum, trying to find edema or swelling.
Key indicators are an important part of the physical examination.Temperature, blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rate, will help in the diagnosis and choice of treatment.
2. Analyses . A blood test will help assess the patient's stability and potential problems associated with colitis.
A complete blood count will help estimate the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelet count.The number of red blood cells help to establish bleeding.White blood cells indicate that the body is experiencing stress, including the stress of infection.Platelets help blood to clot, so know the number of platelets in patients with bleeding very useful.
Electrolyte disturbances can occur with diarrhea.Indicators of sodium and potassium levels to help assess the patient's condition, if there is diarrhea.
Renal function can be assessed by measuring blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels.
analysis of feces will help detect infection as a cause of colitis.
3. Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. If the specific cause of colitis is not clear, you may need a colonoscopy.Inspection of the colon can be enough to make a diagnosis.A biopsy (tissue slices) can be taken from the colonic mucosa, to confirm the diagnosis.Microscopic colitis (collagenous and lymphocytic) can be diagnosed only by biopsy of the affected area.
A colonoscopy is an important screening of cancer and this is particularly important for those patients who have had blood in the stool, which can not be explained by another diagnosis.
4. Computed tomography . CT can be used to obtain images of the colon and the rest of the stomach.Different types of colitis have distinctive patterns that can help to put a specific diagnosis.
5. X-ray of the abdomen. X-rays with a barium enema can be used to visualize and assess the anatomy of the colon.
Therapeutic treatment of colitis. Treatment of colitis is primarily aimed at eliminating the causes of disease, such an infection, inflammation, blood flow disturbance or other reasons.In many cases, a little more than symptomatic treatment, intravenous administration of fluids and drugs into the body to control pain .
Diet is the mainstay of therapy for the treatment of most causes of colitis.A diet with plenty of fluids allows the colon to rest and restore its function.
infections that cause diarrhea and colitis may require the use of antibiotics, depending on the cause.Some bacterial infections, such as salmonella and do not require antibiotic therapy, the body is able to get rid of the infection itself.Other infections, such as Clostridium, always require treatment with antibiotics.
Inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are often controlled by a combination of drugs that use a step by step approach.Initially, anti-inflammatory drugs are used, and if they are less effective, may be added to drugs that suppress the immune system.In the most severe cases, surgery may be required to remove all or part of the colon and small intestine.
Treatment of ischemic colitis initially begin using intravenous infusion to soothe the intestines and prevent dehydration, especially if the patient is unable to drink enough fluids alone.If an adequate blood supply to the intestine is restored, you may need surgery to remove part of the intestine to the location of the bleeding.
diarrhea and abdominal pain.Most causes of colitis moment - diarrhea and abdominal cramping.These symptoms also occur with diseases such as viral enteritis (inflammation of the colon).Outpatient treatment may include a diet with frequent use of liquid within 24 hours, rest and acetaminophen (Tylenol), needed for pain.Often, the symptoms disappear quickly and do not require further treatment.Besides the daily fluid requirement, and it is necessary to make up the loss, otherwise dehydration will occur, which could potentially degrade the symptoms of abdominal pain and cramping.
loperamide (Imodium), is an effective medicine to control diarrhea.Acetaminophen or ibuprofen, can be used to control pain.Depending on the cause of colitis, treatment may be prescribed to control or treat the symptoms.Antibiotics may be useful in colitis caused by certain infections.The anti-inflammatory and immune drugs may be used to control symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease.
Surgical treatment of colitis. Surgery may be necessary for the treatment of ischemic colitis, Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, depending on the severity of the disease and response to more conservative non-surgical treatments.