Gastroenterology / / April 30, 2016
What is hemoglobin?
Hemoglobin - this protein is responsible for the delivery of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body and return carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.The man is the hemoglobin in red blood cells.
Hemoglobin not bound to red blood cells (in the free state) is highly toxic and causes acute renal failure.
Norma hemoglobin in the blood
Normal values of hemoglobin depends on the age and sex of the individual.For children under 12 years of hemoglobin norms do not depend on gender.Below are normal hemoglobin indicators depending on age and sex.
Norma hemoglobin in children
Newborns: 135-140 g / l (average 165 g / l)
- up to 1 month: 100-200 g / l (average 139 g / l)
- 1-2 months: 100-180 g / l (average 112 g / l)
- 2-6 months: 105-140 g / l (average 126 g / l)
- 0,5-2 years:105-135 g / l (average 120 g / l)
- from 2 to 6: 115-135 g / l (average 125 g / l)
- from 6 to 12 years: 115-155 g/ l (average 135 g / l)
Norma hemoglobin in women
- from 12 to 18 years: 120-160 g / l (average 140 g / l)
- from 18 to 60 years: 120-150 g / l (average 140 g / l)
- over 60 years: 117-138 g / l (average 130 g / l)
Norma hemoglobin in men
- from 12 to 18s: 130-160 g / l (average 145 g / l)
- from 18 to 60 years: 136-177 g / l (average 140 g / l)
- aged 60 years: 124-149 g / l(an average of 135 g / l)
Causes of low hemoglobin
- Blood loss (explicit and implicit). For obvious blood loss include monthly in women, bleeding hemorrhoids, as well as blood loss in trauma and operations.Hidden blood loss observed in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- infectious and autoimmune diseases.When these diseases damaged red blood cells, which leads to a reduction in their lifetime.Damage to red blood cells observed in dysentery, salmonellosis, hepatitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, tuberculosis.
- Worms. Worms consume large amounts of vitamin B 12, which is responsible for the absorption of iron.Especially a lot of vitamin B12 absorbs a tapeworm.
- Power.For the formation of hemoglobin food must contain enough iron, protein, vitamin B12 and folic acid.
- Pregnancy, lactation. Under these conditions there is increased consumption of iron.
- Violation of the digestibility of iron and vitamin B 12. It is observed in thinning of the stomach lining (gastritis), dysbiosis, after operations on the stomach or small intestine.
- Malignant diseases of the blood.
- Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Pathology system hematopoiesis
- Bone Marrow Diseases
- Kidney Failure
symptoms of low hemoglobin
Symptoms exhibited lowhemoglobin can be divided into psychopathological and dystrophic.
- Low blood pressure.
- general weakness, drowsiness.
- Heart palpitations.
almost always a lack of hemoglobin is associated with iron deficiency in the body, and this is manifested by the following symptoms:
- Changing the structure of the nail.The nails become brittle, they poyavlyuyatsya spots and they get the wrong structure.
- Slowing down hair growth and hair loss.
- Dry skin.
- taste disturbance.People with low levels of hemoglobin like acetone smells of exhaust gases of cars, paints and naphthalene.
- pale skin.
- Changing the language of the mucous membranes.It becomes red and painful.
- A slight increase in temperature up to 37-37,5 gr.S
treatment reduced hemoglobin
First treatment at reduced hemoglobin should be aimed at addressing the causes of its development (the treatment of gastritis, ulcers, bleeding eliminationetc.)
Also appointed iron supplements.The amount of iron preparations should be sufficient, but not high, because it can cause the phenomenon of intolerance.The average daily rate of iron ranges from 100 to 300 mg.In the initial stages, with good endurance iron is recommended to use the maximum dose of iron.After reaching normal values of hemoglobin treatment does not stop, but only decreases the dose of 2-3.Treatment with a reduced dose of iron continues for another 2-4 months.
after the end of treatment should be 2-3 times a year antirecurrent courses of treatment.When an anti-prescribed courses of 40-60 mg of iron per day.
the treatment of iron preparations increase the hemoglobin begins to occur only after 1 month of treatment.If
hemoglobin decrease due to a lack of vitamin B12, it is prescribed a course of subcutaneous injections of vitamin B12 in a dose of 300-500 mg per day.After reaching normal values of hemoglobin, this is usually 4-6 weeks, the dose reduced, and treatment should be continued for another 2-3 months.
- Gastritis with low acidity, traditional treatments
- Nutrition in chronic gastritis
- Diet for peptic ulcer
- Diet for gastritis
- Dietetic therapy at a peptic ulcer
- Peptic ulcerstomach and duodenum 12
Power under reduced hemoglobin
eat food with a deficiency of hemoglobin should be rich in animal protein and iron, so you need to eat sufficient quantities of meat and meat products, especially beef.
promotes the absorption of iron vitamins, so it is recommended to consume a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables.
It should be noted that the iron in the human body to digest only from animal protein, and hardly digestible fruit.For example, an apple contains a lot of iron, but our body is almost not absorbed, but at the same time, the apple contains a lot of vitamins that promote the absorption of iron from animal proteins.From meat to digest about 6% of iron and from plant foods - only 0,2%
Dining with a deficiency of hemoglobin must contain animal proteins, vegetables and fruits.Animal proteins contain iron absorbed by our body, and fruits and vegetables, essential minerals and vitamins to assimilate it.
Reduced hemoglobin during pregnancy
Reduced hemoglobin level during pregnancy is normal.This is due to the fact that the blood volume increases and the number of red blood cells is the same.The first signs of decline in hemoglobin marked the 20th week, and the maximum drop in hemoglobin is observed at 32-34 weeks of pregnancy.Before birth the hemoglobin level returns to normal.
for hemoglobin reduction prophylaxis during pregnancy is recommended to use vitamin complexes and eat enough food containing animal protein, whole grains, vegetables and fruits.
Natural causes increase of hemoglobin
Elevated hemoglobin is normal for people to take root in the mountains, where the air is thin and contains less oxygen.For these people elevated hemoglobin is not an aberration.This is a normal adaptation of the body to external conditions.
Increased hemoglobin also observed in people who are actively involved in sports.These people need oxygen above and the body adapts to it, increasing hemoglobin levels.
Pathologic causes of elevated hemoglobin
The main reason for the increased hemoglobin in the human body is a large number of red blood cells, as well as their increased size.
also causes high hemoglobin could be:
- Congenital heart disease
- pulmonary fibrosis
- Lack of heart and blood vessels
- bowel obstruction
Symptoms of elevated hemoglobin
- increased blood pressure
skin - sleep disorders
- constant fatigue
elevated hemoglobin Treatment
elevated hemoglobin Treatment is carried out with the help of diet, namely the restriction of animal protein that contain easily digested by the body iron.This is usually enough to hemoglobin indices have bounced back.
From medication prescribers blood thinning (Courant Cardiomagnyl, Trental, et al.)
also for the treatment of elevated hemoglobin administered eritroforez.With this procedure reduces the number of red blood cells, which in turn reduces the level of hemoglobin.
In any case, in the case at elevated hemoglobin should find out the cause of the disease, because of which increases hemoglobin and treat it exactly.With the help of diet can quickly reduce the level of hemoglobin in the body, but the cause of the increase in hemoglobin is not a remove.