Anemia : Causes, symptoms , treatment, prevention
Gastroenterology / / April 26, 2016
Anemia - is a state when the erythrocytes (red blood cells) contains an insufficient amount of hemoglobin is responsible for carrying oxygen to the tissues of the body.
Hemoglobin most part produced in the bone marrow.The average duration of red blood cells (cells containing hemoglobin) lasts 90 to 120 days, then the body gets rid of them.When cells become low, the kidneys begin to produce the hormone erythropoietin, which gives a signal to the bone marrow of the need to generate new blood cells red.
conditions necessary to produce hemoglobin
to make hemoglobin, necessary to the body receives enough vitamin B12, folic acid and iron.If the body does not enter at least one of these elements, it leads to anemia.
Causes of anemia
main reasons leading to anemia
??A diet with enough vitamin B12, folic acid or iron.
??A disturbance in the gastric mucosa or intestinal mucosa.In this case there is no absorption through the mucosa of subs
??Permanent loss of blood.Most often this is due to a prolonged menstruation or gastric ulcer.
??Malabsorption after removing part of the stomach or intestines.
Possible causes of anemia
??Problems with the immune system, causing the body begins to count red blood cells harmful cells and remove them.
??Some chronic diseases (cancer, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic kidney disease, and others.)
??The problems with the bone marrow (leukemia, multiple myeloma).
Symptoms of anemia
symptoms in mild anemia
??The feeling of heaviness and fatigue, especially after exercise.
??Problems with concentration and attention.
Symptoms of moderate to severe anemia
??The blue color of the eyeballs.
??Shortness of breath
??Inflammation of the tongue (abscesses, ulcers and so on.)
??Low blood pressure
??Increased heart rate
Treatment of anemia
Treatment of anemia in the first place should be aimed at eliminating the causes of the disease and then treat the underlying disease.Together with this hormone erythropoietin administered iron supplements, vitamin B12, folic acid, iron and other minerals.
Complications of anemia
Severe anemia can lead to that vital organs do not receive enough oxygen and prestanut perform its functions.For example, when there is insufficient oxygen supply to the heart muscle, a heart attack.
Different types of anemia
Anemia caused by a lack of vitamin B12
??Diarrhea or constipation
??Fatigue, lack of energy, dizziness
??Loss of appetite
??Problems with concentration
??Redness of the tongue and bleeding gums.
If a lack of vitamin B12 is observed for a long time, there may be a problem with the nerves, namely:
??Loss of balance.
??Numbness of hands and feet.
Treatment of a lack of vitamin B12
With a lack of vitamin B12 patients received injections of the vitamin, usually 12 times a month.In severe cases, every day.Also, find out the cause of a lack of vitamin B12 (stomach problems, vegetarian, etc.) and eliminates this cause.If the underlying cause can not be eliminated, then the injection of vitamin B12 are appointed for life.
Anemia caused by lack of folic acid
The human body gets folic acid by eating greens and liver of animals.Inadequate consumption of these components leads to anemia.
Anemia caused by lack of folic acid has its own peculiarity - the red blood cells are abnormally large.Such cells are called - megalocytes.This anemia nazevaetsya - megaloblastic anemia.
Causes of anemia folic
??Lack of folic acid in the diet (lack of greenery in the diet and the liver).
??Use of certain medications (phenytoin, methotrexate, sulfasalazine, triamterene, pyrimethamine, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and barbiturates).
??The use digested food for
Symptoms of anemia folic
Treatment of anemia folic
Treatment of anemia folic make the appointment of folic acid, orally or intravenously, and the change in diet (inclusion of greenery).If the anemia is caused due to problems with the intestines, the folic acid injections are appointed for life.
Folivaya anemia very well to treatment and usually two or three months of treatment takes place.
Complications of anemia folic
People have long lack of folic acid are facing the following challenges:
??Quickly graying hair
??Darkening of the skin
Folic acid and pregnancy
If a woman has been lack of folic acid, and she wants to get pregnant, it is recommended to drink daily 400 mcg of folic acid for three months.
Anemia caused by iron deficiency
Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia.Iron is a key element in the process of delivering oxygen to the body tissues.
Causes of anemia caused by iron deficiency
??The body does not absorb iron from the foods containing it.
??The diet of iron-containing products is not enough.
??Your body needs more iron than your body produce.This often happens during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
??Varicose veins of the esophagus.
??The use of certain drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen, etc.) Which may cause a bleeding ulcer.
??Peptic ulcer disease.
??Gastric bypass surgery.
??Ingestion of large amounts of antacids which contain calcium.
Symptoms of anemia caused by iron deficiency
??Pale skin color.
??Pain on the tongue.
??Blue eye color proteins.
treatment of anemia caused by iron deficiency
Treatment consists of the use of iron supplementation and clarification of the reasons for the lack of iron in the body.
usually quite 2 months of iron therapy, to relieve symptoms, but for the prevention of cancer drugs are used for another 6-12 months.
Products containing iron
??Chicken and turkey
??Legumes (peas, lentils, beans)
??The yolk of eggs
??Bread from whole grains
??Raisins, prunes, apricots
??Cabbage, spinach, parsley.
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Anemia caused by chronic diseases
Anemia causes, the following chronic diseases:
?? CancersKidney disease
??Hepatitis B and C
treatment of anemia caused by chronic disease, reduced primarily to treatment of the underlying disease, the use of iron supplementation, and in severe cases, blood transfusions.
Hemolytic anemia - a disease in which there is increased breakdown of red blood cells.
Causes of hemolytic anemia
Hemolytic anemia occurs when the bone marrow does not play a sufficient amount of hemoglobin or the immune system does not take its own red blood cells as foreign substances.Also cause hemolytic anemia can be preleivanie blood is not appropriate to the patient.
Other causes of anemia
Anemia can also cause:
??Aplastic anemia (in patients with no symptoms and is found hemoblastosis reduction of hematopoiesis in bone marrow)
??Megaloblastic anemia (due violation of DNA synthesis)
??Thalassemia (a hereditary hemolytic anemia is associated with disturbances in the synthesis of hemoglobin, is most common among the inhabitants of the Mediterranean area)
??Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin disorders associated with the structure of hemoglobin particular crystalline structure).