Helminthiases / / August 12, 2017
Echinococcosis (Lat.), Echinococcosis, hydatid disease (Eng.), Echinococcose, maladie hydatique (fr.), Echinococcosis (App.)
Echinococcosis - a chronic disease caused by lesions of the liver and other organs and tissues of larvaetape helminth echinococcus.Most often hydatid disease in humans and animals is found in Australia, New Zealand, South America, North Africa, the Mongolian People's Republic, in the south of Europe.In Russia, there is mainly in the North Caucasus, Transcaucasia, Buryatia, Yakutia and West Siberia.
Over the past century the frequency of echinococcosis, who was in tsarist Russia a very common disease, decreased significantly.A significant reduction in our country, the number of human diseases echinococcosis achieved through a broad prophylactic measures (destruction of stray and pet dogs deworming, strict veterinary supervision in the sale and processing of meat, etc.).
Pathogen echinococcosis - ribbon worms Echinococcus granulosus, a parasite at the stage of puber
body length of mature parasite 3,4-6,18 mm, 0,47-0,98 mm consists of a head (scolex), neck and 3-4 segments.At the head of the 4 suckers and double crown of 38-40 hooks.In the last segment of the uterus is the lateral protrusions containing 400-800 eggs the size of 0,030-0,036 mm.Genital opening in the rear half of the side edge of the last segment.Life expectancy of a dog tapeworm in the body - the most frequent of its definitive host - 5-6 months, and sometimes more than a year.
tapeworm larva - bubble diameter of 1 mm up to 40-60 cm longer.Bladder wall is composed of inner and outer germ cuticular membranes.Over the last reaction in the host tissue forms dense fibrous capsule.The interior of the bladder is filled with fluid.The embryonic shell a lot of brood capsules in which the developing embryo scolexes with 4 suckers and a crown of hooks.Mature scolexes float freely in the fluid bladder echinococcus (hydatid sand).From scoleces formed subsidiaries, and inside them - grandchild bubbles.Subsidiaries bubbles formed inside the mother's bladder, rarely outside.Sometimes hydatid bubbles contain no scoleces nor daughter bubbles.Such bubbles are observed more frequently in the lung.They are called tsefalotsistami.
mechanism of infection
ehinokokkoznoy main source of infection in Russia is a dog.Less important are wild carnivores - wolves and jackals.Infection echinococcosis intermediate hosts - humans, cattle and small cattle - occurs by ingestion of eggs echinococcosis, released into the environment with the feces infested sexually mature tapeworm of dogs.
person usually become infected through direct contact with animals, whose fur is dirty hexacanth.Certain important helminth colonization of residential and outbuildings premises.Infection is also possible echinococcosis by eating raw vegetables from the gardens frequented by dogs.Horses, cattle, deer often become infected on pastures.Wild carnivores (wolves, etc.) Can also shatters hexacanth helminth and habitats of wild ruminants, so the possibility of infection last echinococcosis is not excluded.
hexacanth echinococcus fairly stable.On the surface of the soil in the shade at a temperature of 10-26 ° C, they remain viable for about 1 month.At a temperature of 50 ° C Echinococcus oncosphere die within 1 hour at 60 ° C - 10 minutes, and at - 100 ° C - 20 seconds.
Echinococcus final host (dog and others.) Invade them by eating animal organs, with blisters tapeworm containing scolexes.Each scolex in dog intestines (wolf, jackal) develops sexually mature echinococcus.
- Echinococcosis kidney
- Echinococcosis abdominal organs
- Echinococcosis of liver
- Echinococcosis bones
- Echinococcosis light
- Multiple hydatid disease of the abdomen and pelvis
- clinical picture echinococcosis
- Echinococcosis gallbladder
development of disease
hexacanth tapeworm in the human gastrointestinal tract are released from membranes, penetrate into the blood or lymph vessels and entered into the liver.Some of them through the hepatic vein, inferior vena cava and right heart into the lungs, and then sometimes from the pulmonary circulation come in big.From a variety of locations echinococcus: It can affect any organ and any tissue, but most often the liver and lungs.Sometimes it swallowed a large amount of hexacanth that causes multiple invasion.The growth of the bubbles is very slow: in 5 months they reach a diameter of 5-20 mm.
echinococcosis in the pathogenesis of great importance is the sensitization of the body metabolic products of the parasite.She is allergic to the restructuring of the host with the appearance of hives on the skin, blood eosinophilia and so forth. When you break the bubble possible anaphylactic shock with fatal outcome.Thus there is a colonization of tissues and scraps of scolex embryonic shell with the formation of new bubbles.
an important role in the pathogenesis and manifestations of echinococcosis plays a mechanical impact of rising bubbles in the organs and tissues.Secondary bacterial infection leads to festering blisters.When death occurs echinococcus bubble calcification of its walls.Around the bubble formed fibrous capsule with infiltration of lymphoid and plasma cells.To his cuticular shell adjacent layer of necrotic cells, further outward to be a layer of dense, fibrous tissue often hyalinized and then the outer layer ryhlovoloknisty.
In the liver near the fibrous capsule frequent hemorrhage, infiltration, sometimes deformity and atrophy of lobes, increasing layers of connective tissue, degeneration of liver cells.
into the lungs echinococcosis in the tissues surrounding the helminth develop atelectasis, focal fibrosis.When festering echinococcus bubble having pneumonia, and in breaking it in the pleura - anaphylactic shock.Multiple hydatid lung leads to pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary heart.The bubbles are formed near the pleura adhesions.
When brain echinococcosis bubble formed around the capsule, and near its furrows marked flattening and expansion of the convolutions of the brain, sometimes internal hydrocephalus, cell round infiltration, thickening of the vessel walls, necrotic changes of nerve fibers.