Helminthiases / / May 04, 2016
Malaria, febris intermittens, paludismus (. Lat), malaria, marsh lihorodka (Russian.), Malaria, paludism (Eng.), Malaria, paludisme (fr.), Malaria, paludismo (Spanish.)
Malaria -transmissible disease characterized by paroxysms of fever, anemia, sometimes severe central nervous system.Intense foci of malaria exist in Africa, some countries in Southeast Asia, on the island of Sri Lanka, in some areas of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, the Arabian Peninsula.In Russia, malaria is virtually eliminated, the number of patients is negligible, among them prevail infected abroad.
Malaria is caused by four species of protozoa: Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, P. falciparum.The first two types of parasites cause a three-day, the third - and final four-day - tropical malaria.
development of malaria parasites in the human body is composed of two cycles - Fabric and erythrocyte.Plasmodium sporozoites enter the human body through the bite of an infected mosquito malaria.They reside only
penetrated into erythrocytes merozoites of malaria parasites are evolving and reproduce asexually, giving rise to the schizont asexual and sexual forms - gamont.As a result of dividing the schizonts are formed merozoites, enter new red blood cells.
Duration schizogony of merozoites, introduced in red blood cell, morula to decay into daughter merozoites in P. vivax, P. ovale, P. falciparum - 48 hours in P. malariae - 72 hours
Different types of malaria parasites in human blood.differ from each other a number of morphological traits and the number of merozoites in the morula: in P. vivax 12-18 merozoites, in P. ovale - 4-12, in P. malariae - 6-12, in P. falciparum - 12-24.
source of infection is a person - the patient or parasite.Malaria transmission is carried by mosquitoes genus Anopheles -. A. maculipennis, etc. The mosquito gets malaria parasites during bloodsucking in humans.In it they make sporogonic cycle - sexual reproduction.Infected mosquitoes transmit malaria parasites - sporozoites - a man by the bite.
malaria transmission in some countries with a tropical climate occurs throughout the year, in the majority of areas of this period is limited to 1-6 months.Sometimes it lasts longer.The incidence of malaria depends on a number of natural and social factors: climate and the topography, economy, predominant occupations of life, migration, organization of therapeutic and preventive measures.
Malaria Infection is possible not only through mosquitoes, but also in blood transfusions, when using insufficiently sterilized syringe with the remnants of blood of a patient with malaria or parasite.
- symptoms and a malaria diagnosis
- Special malaria
Pathogenesis and pathological anatomy
enter the bloodstream and penetrate the red blood cells at the end of the incubation period, the merozoites of malaria parasites from the liver tissue.At the beginning of the disease due to the presence in the blood of different generations of parasites breeding their ends at different times, resulting in the wrong type of initial fever.Soon, however, the development of the malaria parasite becomes a one-time;in particular, into one matures weight division schizonts, causes attacks of fever.Alternation last usually occurs when infestation P. vivax, P. ovale and P. falciparum in a day, at P, malariae - 2 days.
important in the pathogenesis of malaria has sensitized patient's body with the subsequent development of allergy, which plays an important role in hemorrhagic forms, intestinal disorders accompanied by urticaria, malarial coma.With the development of hemoglobinuric fever, in addition to allergies, you should take into account the patient's deficiency in red blood cells of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
at necropsy of deaths from malaria, especially attracts attention hepatosplenomegaly.Spleen or chocolate brown color with anemic infarcts.On microscopic examination, it revealed necrosis, proliferation of connective tissue at the site of the Malpighian corpuscles, pigment deposition in the capillary and macrophages.In the liver, there are hyperemia, hyperplasia retikuloendoteliya, long-term illness sometimes during the development of connective tissue between the lobules and within them.
have died of falciparum or comatose falciparum malaria are acute brain swelling.When tropical malaria detect malarial pigment and a host of P. falciparum in the capillaries, often necrosis and hemorrhage in the brain tissue.