Helminthiases / / May 04, 2016
Giardiasis - a disease caused by Lamblia intestinalis.These protozoa are two stages in its development - vegetative and cystic.At the vegetative stage of Giardia are pear-shaped, the average size of 9-12 microns, actively move, each equipped with four pairs of flagella.Giardia have two cores, the front end of the body have a wide, the rear - tapered, symmetrical shape, located on the ventral surface of the disc for suction by which Giardia fixed to the epithelial cells of the intestinal wall.Giardia cysts are oval in shape, contain 2-4 nuclei and rolled flagellar apparatus, the average size of 8-11 microns.
main source of infection giardiasis is a sick man.Less dangerous in this respect are the animals (rats, mice, dogs, cats, etc.), Although it is widespread among them.Most people become infected by dogs.Infection occurs by ingestion of Giardia cysts with food, water, it can also occur through household items, dirty hands.The role of the infection tsistovydeleniya, it is intermittent and occurs at 9-2
Giardia parasites on the intestinal mucosa.Lyamblioznoy invasion initially affects the small intestine - primarily thin and, rarely, the duodenum.Then giardia moved to the middle and distal small intestine.The bile ducts, gall bladder and liver parasites Giardia is not as concentrated bile protivolyamblioznoe has a pronounced effect.In this regard, the term "lyamblioznoy cholecystitis" should be recognized as incorrect.We are in such cases should be on a combination of inflammation of the gallbladder different etiology with giardiasis or lyamblionositelstvom.Attached to the epithelial cells of the small intestine, Giardia consume nutrients that are in the process of cavity and membrane digestion were split up monomers (simple nutrients).
Giardia Reproduction occurs by dividing the pair in their places of greatest congestion.The external environment in the form of stand giardia cysts.Giardia, absorbing nutrients and enzymes directly from the brush border of the intestinal epithelium, thereby interfering with the digestive process and lead to its substantial disruption, because the small intestine is the site of active absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals.Prolonged invasion during (after 2 months. Or more) in the places of localization lamblia appear swelling, moderate or severe inflammatory response, dystrophic, atrophic and motor changes impaired synthesis of enzymes involved in the digestion in the intestine nutrients decreases absorption digestion products indicatedallergic phenomena.
Giardiasis may be asymptomatic (25-28%).In such cases, we are talking about lyamblionositelstve.In this regard, giardia referred to conditionally pathogenic microflora.Lyamblionositelstvo can go into the disease (giardiasis) for adverse effects (previous diseases, vitamin deficiencies, weakening of the body, low-protein diet, chronic pathology of the digestive system).
There are also sub-clinical form of the disease (49%) occurring with minor symptoms, and clinical (13-43%), giving a fairly circumscribed picture of the disease.Clinic giardiasis is manifested in the form of various intestinal syndromes (duodenitis, enteritis, enterocolitis, dyskinesia duodenum and small intestine).Patients complain of general weakness, poor appetite, diarrhea, nausea.The stools are liquid, often foamy, discolored feces may be mixed with mucus.These symptoms coincide with periods of maximum tsistovydeleniya.If untreated, giardiasis occurs in waves, worsening continues up to 2 months., Then comes the remission, and after 13 months.again manifested symptoms.In the appointment of its treatment effect comes quickly, and the exacerbation of symptoms disappear by the 9-10 th day.
giardiasis Treatment is carried out only in the presence of clinical manifestations.There are many ways to treat giardiasis.
- tapeworm bovine (beef tapeworm infection)
treatment of giardiasis
most often used the following(given adult treatment regimen).
1. Metronidazole (Trichopolum): the drug is used at a dose of 0.2-0.25 g 2-3 times a day for 5-10 days.Appointed by two cycles of one week apart.There is also a second embodiment of application of metronidazole - the first day in one portion 2.4 g, in the following days - 0.1 g of 3 times in 3 days.
2. Furazolidone: adults administered in a dose of 0.1 g 2-4 times for 5-6 days, 2 hours after a meal.Wash down with plenty of liquid (water, tea, juices).You can take furazolidone 0.1 g 3 times daily after meals for 10 days.The course of treatment consists of 3 cycles, a break between them for 15 days.
3. aminoquinolyl: 0.15 g 3 times a day, two five-day course, with an interval of 5 days.You can assign to 0.1 g 3 times within 10 days.In this case, three cycles are carried out at intervals of 1 month.
4. delagil: 0.25 g 3 times a day for 5-6 days.
5. Tinidazole: 0.15 g of 2 times a day during 7 days or 0.5 g once.
Treatment of patients with giardiasis is carried out in a hospital, and lyamblionositeley - an outpatient basis.
Thus, any herbal medicine or mineral water independent value in the treatment of this pathology are not.These agents are used to treat diseases of the digestive organs, at which giardiasis is concomitant disease or for the treatment of intestinal injury sequelae which may result from prolonged untreated giardiasis.The same can be said about the spa treatment.Giardiasis Following the reorganization is not a contraindication to sport.The solution to this issue, as the choice of sport, defined by a condition of the digestive system and other organs and systems of the patient.Persons cured of giardiasis can be donors.