Vitamins And Dietary Supplements / / May 03, 2016
Almost everyone knows that vitamins are impossible without the normal development, growth and vital functions of the human body.In the absence of (beriberi) or a lack of (hypovitaminosis) develop diseases such as scurvy, rickets, beriberi, there dermatitis, changing function of the blood, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, and so on. D. Today vitaminsand vitamins makes it relatively easy to cure and prevent these diseases.
scientifically proven that the minimum requirement of vitamins varies and depends on many factors such as the nature of work, age, sex, severity of the disease, but it is also the barrier for which should not overstep without the need, as exceeding the standards is fraught with unpleasantconsequences.
Unfortunately, we know more and read about the benefits of vitamins, what about the dangers of overdose, and so now all cases of excessive vitamin content found increasingly in the body, or hypervitaminosis.The reason for this is the belief of people i
Modern medical practice is replete with examples of negative and even toxic effect of excessive doses of vitamins.Hypervitaminosis most commonly occur when an overdose of so-called fat-soluble vitamins, which include vitamins A (retinol), D (ergocalciferol), E (tocopherol).
Hypervitaminosis of vitamin A
Vitamin A is essential for the human body.It promotes normal metabolism, growth and development of the body, ensure the normal activity of the organs of vision, increases resistance to infectious diseases, condenses the mucous membranes and respiratory organs of the intestine, prevents penetration into the body of pathogenic organisms, and finally, enhances regeneration and wound healing.
However, enthusiasm and retinol preparations containing it, often leads to hypervitaminosis.The use of high doses of vitamin A, patients often explain the desire to improve vision and to accelerate the healing process.
Symptoms The initial symptoms of hypervitaminosis A in adults is drowsiness, lethargy, headache, dizziness, hair loss, loss of appetite, weight loss, flushing of the face, followed by the emergence of itching and flaking of the skin.Less frequently observed exacerbation of cholelithiasis and chronic pancreatitis.
In children with acute hypervitaminosis A, which develops as a result of a single application of large doses of the vitamin, is sharply increased intracranial pressure (due to the intensive formation of cerebrospinal fluid), bulging fontanelle, there is vomiting, increased body temperature, and somnolence.
In chronic hypervitaminosis A, which is the result of prolonged and uncontrolled use of preparations containing it, in children decreased appetite, impaired function of the skin, there is seborrhea, hair falls out.Simultaneously, abnormal liver function, reduced synthesis of prothrombin, which in turn leads to the development of hemolysis, bleeding gums, nasal bleeding and other.In adults and children on the bones appear painful hyperostosis (spurs).
An excess of vitamin A in the body also increases the production of adrenal mineral-corticoids, which cause a delay in the body of sodium, chlorine, water, and as a consequence of the development of edema and pain in the bones.Often when there is an overdose of vitamin A skin pigmentation, and at hypervitaminosis A pregnancy may impair fetal development.
At the first signs of hypervitaminosis A preparations containing retinol, should be repealed.Simultaneously limited consumption of products containing it, in particular milk, cheese and butter.This quickly leads to the restoration of the liver, skin, and improve the overall condition of the patient.
Hypervitaminosis of vitamin D
Dangerous (or death), the D hypervitaminosis, manifested by loss of appetite, general weakness, nausea, headaches, the appearance of protein in the urine, leukocytes, and hyaline casts.Furthermore, when excess ergocalciferol body is leaching of calcium from bones and leaving them in the kidneys, adrenal glands, liver and blood vessels.Last in the elderly may contribute to the formation of blood clots and exacerbate atherosclerosis.This hypercalcemia often leads to a change in the cardiovascular system and other organs.
Undoubtedly, a disservice to children has convinced some of the parents is that the more a child to give the D2 vitamin, the lower the risk of developing rickets him.And the child as a result of established hypervitaminosis appear cramps, insomnia develops, stops the growth, the urine is released calcium, phosphorus, protein, sometimes begins the formation of kidney stones.The case when due to excessive consumption of vitamin D2 occurred Silting bone hole, through which the facial nerve, resulting in paralysis of the child emerged.
Due to the ability of vitamin D to the accumulation (accumulation) in the body should be used only by prescription and under medical supervision, with a constant examination of urine and blood on the content of calcium in them.
If signs of hypervitaminosis preparations containing the D2 vitamin, immediately canceled, and to eliminate nevsosavsheysya vitamin and accelerate the elimination of it from the body through the intestine into the assigned mineral oil.To reduce the absorption of calcium from the intestine and accelerate inactivation of hepatic vitamin D2 prescribers glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone, prednisolone, dexamethasone, etc.).Simultaneously, it is recommended the use of vitamin A (retinol acetate or retinol palmitate) and ascorbic acid bromide thiamine (vitamin B), that reduce the toxic properties of vitamin D.
Hypervitaminosis vitamins E and K Excess
other fat-soluble vitamins also adversely affectson body functions.For example, it is known that an overdose of tocopherol (vitamin E) modifies the activity of the central nervous system and may cause a sharp rise in blood pressure, up to a hypertensive crisis, and when excess vitamin K clotting process is disrupted.
Hypervitaminosis of vitamin
often develop hypervitaminosis and excessive use of water-soluble vitamins.For example, an overdose of thiamine (vitamin B) may lead to increased blood pressure, disturbance of liver enzyme systems, and its degeneration, increasing fatty acid synthesis, which in turn contributes to the development of atherosclerosis.Furthermore, in children in hypervitaminosis often becomes a cause of allergic reactions.In these cases, almost entirely offset by the effectiveness of anti-TB drugs.
Hypervitaminosis B2 causes fatty liver, and excess folic acid may lead to the development mieloza (spinal cord damage).
Hypervitaminosis of vitamin PP
Dangerous hypervitaminosis nicotinic acid (vitamin PP), which often causes allergic reactions, as well as dysbiosis.The latter may be so severe that a drastic change in the functions of the gastrointestinal tract sometimes leads to death.
Hypervitaminosis of vitamin C
We all used to be considered a harmless ascorbic acid, or as it is also known as vitamin C. This vitamin is really useful and necessary for an organism as enhances redox processes, metabolism, increases the elasticity of blood vessels, takesprocesses involved in respiration, synthesis of hemoglobin and erythrocytes.But an excess of it in the body is not desirable, because at hypervitaminosis C may increase blood pressure, cardiac activity and decrease the permeability of blood vessels.At the same time increases blood clotting, which threatens the formation of blood clots and blockage of blood vessels.There have been cases of hypersensitivity in children with rapid development of their allergic reactions after a single use of multiple therapeutic doses of ascorbic acid.Do not give children vitamin C instead of candy, as some parents are buying it at a pharmacy without hindrance.
Hypervitaminosis of vitamin P
of thrombosis due to increased blood clotting process and promotes an excessive content of vitamin P (rutin).Therefore passion rutin, preparations and products containing it, such as aronia, safe for the body and vitamins self unacceptable.
Fortunately, hypervitaminosis not occur very often.But to prevent self, uncontrolled use of vitamins, which can lead to very serious consequences, especially in children - the duty of every medical, worker.To prevent overdoses of vitamins and development of hypervitaminosis treatment with vitamins, like any other medication, should be taken only on doctor's prescription and under the supervision of a health professional.
03 Jun, 2016
03 Jun, 2016
03 Jun, 2016