Helminthiases / / August 12, 2017
Dracunculosis (Lat.), Guinea worm (of Persian., Russian.) Guinea-worm disease, dracontiasis (Eng.), Dracontiase (French) dracunculosis (App.)
Helminthiases characterized by lesions mainly of the skin and subcutaneous tissue.It is widespread in several countries in Africa, India, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Brazil, French Guiana, in the Caribbean.On the territory of Russia met in 1932
dracunculiasis Pathogen - round worms Dracunculus medinensis (synonym Filaria medinensis, Guinea-worm).Female 32-120 cm long, occasionally up to 150-200 cm and a thickness of 0.5-2 mm male only 12-29 mm in length and 0.4 mm in thickness.
in puberty stage of the helminth parasite in humans, dogs and other mammals.In human adult females helminth localized under the skin of the lower extremities, sometimes hands, torso, head, neck, genital organs, intramuscular connective tissue, the synovial membrane of joints, sometimes pericardial, spinal canal, pleural and abdominal cavity, eye, nose,tongue, diaphragm.One
main source of infection - a sick man dracunculiasis.Less important are the dogs and other mammals.In case of contact of the patient affected areas of the body with water from a ruptured uterus helminth larvae in the pond a lot of stands, which capture the intermediate hosts of the parasite - the Cyclops and other crustaceans.
In crustaceans larvae 4-16 days after becoming infective for humans.Infection of humans and mammals occurs through ingestion of drinking water with the larvae of Cyclops.In the gastrointestinal tract of humans and mammals to digest Cyclops, released the larvae penetrate the intestinal wall in the mesentery and in 3-4 months reach sexual maturity there.After fertilization, females, males die, the females migrate through the lymphatic system, penetrating into the subcutaneous tissue and other tissues, which grow slowly;in their uterus forms the larvae.Full development of the female ends after 8-14 months or even 2 years after being hit by a Cyclops larvae into the human body.
patient sensitization metabolism products helminths, their mechanical action on the fabric, and often secondary bacterial infection determine the pathogenesis of dracunculiasis.
In place of helminth parasitism appear swelling, accompanied by pain.Sometimes there is puffiness of face, redness of the conjunctiva, attacks of breathlessness, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fainting.This state continues for several days.Then the bubble is formed on the skin 2-7 cm in diameter, filled with serous fluid.After 3-15 days, it bursts, revealing whitish necrotic mass.After her rejection opens the course of the skin, which is the female guinea worm disease.After a while of a helminth cuticle breaks and after the crack uterus protrudes.When you break it flows a milky liquid with maggots.
When dracunculiasis describes a number of surgical complications, mainly due to secondary bacterial infections: abscesses, cellulitis, gangrene, sepsis, mastitis, orchitis, epididymitis, contractures and ankylosis of the joints, trophic ulcers.
dracunculiasis Diagnosis put on the basis of characteristic changes in the skin, under which is often the contours of the body clearly advocate helminth.After breaking bubble and sloughing can notice its head end.Sometimes the worms die and are impregnated with salts of lime, allowing you to see them at the X-ray examination.
- tapeworm bovine (beef tapeworm infection)
Treatment and prognosis
old but stillsuccessfully applicable method of treatment is extraction of worms by winding it on the protruding end of the roller gauze.The gap may contribute to helminth infection of his bed, and the development of allergic phenomena.Wrapping parasite on the roller should be carried out carefully, slowly, and at the first sensation of resistance to stop the procedure until the next day.Roller with helminth pribintovyvayut to the body of the patient.Sometimes drakunkula manages to extract 2-3 and even for 1 day, but usually it takes more time.
From medicines when dracunculiasis used anthelmintics ambilhar and thiabendazole.Fatalities under the influence of drugs drakunkuly resolve.In other cases, they can be easily and painlessly removed.
Attempts drakunkulov removal of tissue surgically, with rare exceptions, did not justify itself.However, surgical treatment is of great, sometimes critical complications of dracunculiasis.
In uncomplicated dracunculiasis outlook is satisfactory, in complicated possible disability and even death.
of standing and slowly flowing water from reservoirs should drink only after boiling, or, in extreme cases, filtration through several layers of gauze or canvas.Social prevention is carried out by a planned detection and treatment, the supply of safe drinking water to the population.