Deafness in children and neonates
Children And Health / / May 08, 2016
hearing loss or deafness - a condition in which the baby is unable to hear sounds in one or both ears.Infants can lose their hearing completely or partially acquire hearing loss.
Alternative names: deafness in infants;hearing loss in infants;conductive hearing loss in infants;central hearing loss in infants;sensorineural hearing loss in infants.
Causes and risk factors for deafness in newborns
Some infants may have some hearing loss at birth.Hearing loss can also occur in children who have normal hearing in infancy.
hearing loss can occur in one or both ears.They can be of varying degrees - mild, moderate, severe or profound.Profound hearing loss - this is what most people call "deafness".
Sometimes hearing loss is becoming stronger, it deteriorates over time.In other cases, it remains stable.
risk factors in child with hearing loss
- a family history of hearing loss;
- low birth weight.
Hearing loss can occur and develop when a child has a problem in the outer or middle ear.These prob
- congenital defects that cause changes in the structure of the auditory canal or middle ear;
- accumulation of earwax;
- accumulation of fluid behind the eardrum:
- damage or rupture of the tympanic membrane;
- items that could get stuck in the ear canal;
- scar or damage to the eardrum by various infections.
Another type of hearing loss is due to problems with the inner ear.This can occur when the tiny hair cells (nerve endings) that move the sound through the ear are damaged.This type of hearing loss can be caused by:
- exposure to some toxic chemicals or drugs - at the time, like a baby in the womb and shortly after birth;
- genetic disorders;
- infections from the mother, which she transmits to her child still in her womb (such as toxoplasmosis, measles or herpes, tinea capitis or ringworm of the scalp, or herpes zoster);
- infection, which can damage the brain after birth - such as meningitis.
problems of the inner ear structure
tumors. Central hearing loss occurs from the damage of the auditory nerve or brain pathways that lead to a nerve.It is rare in infants and children.
Symptoms of deafness in infants
Signs of hearing loss in infants vary by age.For example:
- newborn child with hearing loss can hear loud noise nearby;
- babies who need to respond to familiar voices, may not be a reaction to someone's voice.
Children should use (say) a few words at the age of 15 months and simple sentences of two or three words at the age of 2 years.If they reach this age in these milestones, the reason for this may be hearing loss.
Some children may not be diagnosed with a hearing loss until they are in school.This is true even if they were born with hearing loss.Inattention and the backlog in school may be a sign of undiagnosed hearing loss in children.
diagnosis of deafness in a child
Hearing loss does not allow the child to hear sounds below a certain level.A child with normal hearing to hear sounds below this level.
doctor would have to examine the patient's ears, baby.Inspection may reveal bone problems or symptoms of genetic alterations that can lead to hearing loss in a child.
doctor usually uses a tool called "otoscope" (otoscopy - examination of the external with the use of special tools auditory canal, tympanic membrane, and the destruction of the eardrum -. Tympanum under the control of otoscopy produce inspection and cleaning of the ear, removal of foreign bodies, polyps andgranulation, as well as various kinds of operations - auripuncture, paracentesis), to see the child's ear canal.This allows the doctor to see the eardrum and find problems that can cause permanent hearing loss.
Two common for all test used for screening newborns on hearing loss:
- auditory test response of the brain stem;
- test "otoacoustic emissions".Microphones placed in the baby's ears can detect nearby sounds.These sounds will be repeated in the ear canal.If there is no echo, it is a sure sign of hearing loss.
Infants and young children can be taught through the game the right response to the sounds.These tests are known as "visual response audiometry", and the game can best determine the range of the child's hearing.
treatment of deafness in children
Early, early treatment of hearing loss can allow many babies develop normal language skills without delay.In babies born with hearing loss, treatment should begin no later than the age of 6 months.
Treatment depends on the general state of health of the child and the cause of the loss of his hearing.Treatment may include:
- speech therapy (hearing and learning the correct pronunciation of sounds and words);
- learning sign language;
- a cochlear implant for people with profound sensorineural hearing loss.He is a medical prosthesis to compensate for hearing loss in selected patients with severe or severe sensorineural hearing loss or sensorineural.To compensate for the hearing loss often enough patients hearing aids, but sometimes their use is not entirely effective.Cochlear implants - hearing aid, used for inefficiency or low efficiency of hearing aids in the case of patients with sensorineural hearing loss.surgery is required to install a cochlear implant;
- agents acting on the infection;
- ear tubes to treat recurrent ear infections;
- surgery to correct the structural problems.
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It is often possible to treat hearing loss, which is caused by problems in the middle ear, medication or surgery.However, there is no cure for hearing loss caused by damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve.
How well a child can hear depends on the cause and severity of the loss of their hearing.Achievements in the field of hearing aids and other devices, as well as in the field of speech therapy, prevent many children develop normal language skills at the same age as their peers with normal hearing.Even infants with profound hearing loss when the right combination of treatments can hear quite well.
If your child has any disease which also affects hearing, the prospects depend on whether the child has other symptoms and problems.
necessary to consult a doctor if a child, especially a small, express signs of hearing loss: does not react to loud sounds, does not mimic the sounds you hear from others, or speak at an age where he should start talking.
If the child is inserted into the ear of a cochlear implant, it is strongly recommended to see a doctor immediately if the child had a high body temperature, as well as having a stiff neck, headache or ear infection.Perhaps the implant has not yet caught on, and it needs to be corrected, that should make only an experienced doctor - maybe even a surgeon.
You can not prevent all cases of hearing loss in infants.
Women who plan to become pregnant should make sure that they had all the necessary vaccinations or will be made in a timely manner.
Pregnant women should consult their doctor before taking any medication.If a woman is pregnant, she should avoid actions that may expose her child dangerous infections - such as eg toxoplasmosis.This parasitic disease of humans and animals caused by Toxoplasma Toxoplasma gondii.The source of infection - different kinds of wild and domestic mammals.Human infection occurs in the use of eggs and meat products that have not undergone heat treatment is normal.Also, infection is possible in contact with the pathogen at the damaged skin and mucous membranes, intrauterine infection, etc.Factors contributing to the appearance of the body of the parasite and increases the risk of toxoplasmosis: contact with infected by this parasite animals, use in the home is not mytyh after cleaning cat litter or any other hand contact with cat feces, eating raw or not fully cooked meat, especially pork, lamb or venison, organ transplant or blood transfusion, contact with raw or undercooked meat and neprozharennoe, the presence of toxoplasmosis parents.Toxoplasmosis among infectious diseases caused by protozoa, - one of the most common and most dangerous for expectant mothers.He can proceed unnoticed and cause unpleasant complications during pregnancy, and severe visual impairment or seizures.
If a woman or her partner (husband) has a family history of hearing loss, it can get professional advice on genetics before becoming pregnant.