The most prominent representatives of Russian therapeutic school
History Of Medicine / / August 12, 2017
largest clinician first half of the XIX century GI Sokolsky was born in Moscow in 1807.Secondary education in the Moscow school, and higher education - at the medical faculty of Moscow University, graduating physician of the first category in 1828. As one of the most talented young doctors after graduating from university, GI Sokolsky was sent to Dorpat professor's institute for the training of teaching, where he stayed for 4 years.After working in the Obukhov Petersburg hospital and a two-year trip abroad Sokolsky was appointed in 1836 Professor of therapy, first in Kazan, then in Moscow.
Among the prominent figures of Russian medical science GI Sokolsky occupies a very special place.It is significant, first of all, a deep independence of its clinical thinking: Sokolski did not recognize the authority and did not accept the opinions of others, he is not convinced of the truth of this or that position.Realizing that the science of nature, the human body has accumulated more relatively little hard dat
main source of medical knowledge for the Sokolski was an objective examination of the patient.Opponent hasty metaphysics and theory, he could not recognize many of the valuable achievements of contemporary European medical schools.But at the same time, he did not shun all truly scientific.That's why Sokolsky earlier than many doctors in the West understood the significance of physical research methods and achievements of Corvisart and Laenneka.In one of his articles Sokolsky wrote: "It is impossible to reason to prescribe rules in his aspirations;Well but the laws by which he directs signified the desire is always the same.To talk about what you want and how you want, but follow the unity, clarity, certainty and does not contradict itself ... Because, as soon as the mind is removed from the laws of thought, no quotes are not able to prevent it from error. "It is this simplicity and clarity of thought, along with the ability to watch and he demanded from every doctor.He himself was largely achieved that aspired.The style of his books, as well as his style of clinical thinking, clear and simple.
GI Sokolsky pointed out that each corresponds to a change in function, and certain changes in the organization.But at the same time reminded that it is not for any change in function seen material changes, as in organic nature there is no exact proportionality between the material and activities, both in inorganic nature, where the magnitude of the force is always proportional to the mass."That's why - says the author - bodily strength does not always depend on the size, that's why the power of the mind is not always dwells in the wide forehead."
GI Sokolsky paid much attention to the objective phenomena.Long questioning patients he called the country roads.We must be able to assess, together with the functional powers of individual organs and functional strength of the whole body.Sokolsky criticized the methods of presentation of symptoms of Western luminaries of the time -. Frank Vogel, Reil, etc. In the study of pathology little known disease in its highest development, we must be able to understand and in its initial form."In nature, - he said - there is no class, no birth, no kinds of diseases as the product of reason, but there are some individual cases;they who constitute the purest source, in which the doctor can quench their thirst curious. "From a future doctor, he demanded not so much learning acquired as the integrity of the senses and of selfless love for the truth."Man, saturated with other people's mind, - said Sokolsky, - have a foreign laden weight of the animal."From past experience, he advises draw with caution.He wrote: "Science does not consist of what people thought or think, but the fact that they came up, and they know."He considered it permissible to doubt the validity of many of the provisions of the last medical and taught "to observe nature in peace and away from the doctors' prejudice."Sokolsky avoid citations, references, did not like to flaunt erudition book.He stated: "I think the duty to say that everyone referred me as pathological and anatomical position repeatedly checked their own observations."
GI Sokolsky paid much attention to the study of pulmonary tuberculosis."No country, no climate - he said - wherever silent ferocity of this killer disease."Well described by the author Pathoanatomical picture of the disease.He distinguished form - disseminated, infiltrative, cavernous.Pointing out that the causes of tuberculosis are unknown, Sokolsky stayed on the importance of professional and social and living things.
Even more significant achievements GI Sokolsky in the field of heart disease.For any disease, he drew attention to the nature of the heart sounds, cardiac impulse, the location of the right and left heart chambers by percussion dullness drawing borders.He was able to diagnose the enlargement of the heart cavities.He assessed the cardiac function, depending on the addition of the patient, his character, his state of nervous, digestive and other systems.Being well acquainted with the achievements of physiology and brilliantly owning physical research methods, Sokolsky a cardiologist made a lot of new patient study methodology and description of diseases.The peak of clinical activity Sokolsky are his works on rheumatism.They open a new chapter in the study of diseases of the cardiovascular system and claim the priority of Russian science in the department of internal medicine.Based on a number of clinical observations Sokolski came to the following conclusion: "Rheumatic heart never appears initially, but is always preceded onomu ache in the outer parts of the body, which is either still in progress, or, more commonly, for some time before hitting the chest subsides.These things circumstance is very important in the diagnosis of this disease, especially for those who are its pathology based on the words of the patient;form outdoor rheumatism, after which formed rheumatic heart disease, rheumatic fever are the limbs and chest muscles.Young people of both sexes in the period of manhood more points obliquely to this disease, at least I know of cases thereof do not show nor young nor old age. "
The study painting Sokolsky lung inflammation drew attention to the lack of parallelism between anatomical changes and functional impairment in this disease.He raised the question of the relationship of exudative pleurisy with rheumatism.
is impossible not to recognize the great art GI Sokolsky in the field of therapeutic methods.As shown by his works, and according to contemporaries, he paid great attention to the patient's regimen, his food, his mental state.In this respect, GI Sokolsky went on tradition Zybelina SG and FG Politkovskaya.
However, these successes were given GI Sokolsky easy.General conditions of Russian life of that era, when pursued free thought, did not contribute to the creativity of the freedom-loving scientist.Not once in his writings there are complaints that "Moscow is created by so strange" and that neither the hospital nor in the homes of innovations are not allowed.In one article he wrote: "The people can not make a fist to check out the truth."Red tape and police regime pressured Sokolsky, and from year to year, he became more and more irritable and bilious.He did not hesitate in his critical remarks.But after some sharp remarks addressed to the trustee of the Moscow University;It raised the question of the resignation of Sokol, and in 1849 his professorship broken.After his dismissal from the university Dyadkovo it was a new irreplaceable loss for Russian medical science.
Despite the relatively short stay as a professor therapy Sokolsky managed to prepare several generations of doctors and contributed to the development of national clinical thought.
GI Sokolsky mission took the experience of foreign scientists.Reading the voluminous writings of the German doctors, he came to the conclusion that is expressed in this phrase: "To interpret without mercy all about the little things, then show insulting distrust to the concepts of readers and increase the number of words, without increasing the thoughts."
GI Sokolsky differed independence of judgment and extreme truthfulness.His opinions, he defended with great determination.He did not like insubordination."Ranks, awards or positions, - he said - zaimstvennye of forms, can hardly be material characteristics of medical advantages."
Since 1849, when Sokolsky was forced to resign, he apparently broke due to the scientific world.Only in 1869 in response to the Physico-Medical Society in sending reports to him he sent a hundred-ruble ticket home loan expensed publications society, and soon made a more substantial donation to the newly arisen Medical philanthropic society.
NA Malevsky-Malevich in his memoirs writes about Sokol: "He was not looking for popularity among students, was demanding, harsh and merciless in his criticism, but could not help to inspire the respect of learning, wit and brilliance of the presentation.Grigory had a lot of practice in Moscow and went out of fashion only in the late 50s.He lived out his life, almost forgotten in Moscow, Krivonikolskom lane on the Arbat, in his own house. "The last years of the life of this remarkable man were alone.
Sokolsky died February 28, 1886 in Moscow, having gone through almost all of his fellow University.