Features of the body of a teenager
Children And Health / / August 12, 2017
adolescent age (14 to 18) has a number of anatomical and physiological characteristics resulting from vigorous neuroendocrine restructuring.
In this age of enhanced functional activity of the anterior pituitary, thyroid, gonads, so come puberty, rapid growth and development of the organism as a whole, especially the musculoskeletal system.The most important of these processes are sex hormones and thyroid hormone, produced under the influence of hormones of the anterior pituitary.
accelerated growth teens
acceleration of growth begins, the girls in the 11-13 years old, boys - 13-15.As a result, the growth of girls 11-13 years old are usually higher than the growth of boys of the same age.After 13-14 years, the rate of girls' growth slows significantly, and in boys is more intense, and 15-16 years of growth in boys significantly higher than girls.Started in puberty acceleration of growth in boys is more evenly and lasts longer than girls (18 to 19 years).
Skeletal system adolescent
organism development - a complex biological process, it is characterized by not only a quantitative increase of body weight, but also qualitative changes, structural differentiation of organs and tissues, including bone.Each age period corresponds to a certain degree of differentiation of bone and cartilage tissue - the appearance of ossification points, education synostosis between the diaphysis and epiphyses of long bones.Therefore, on the basis of appearance of ossification points and synostosis, which is determined by radiographic studies can be found matching the biological age of a teenager.
During pubertal growth acceleration occur temporary imbalances in the growth of bone and muscle tissue that contribute to a coordination of movements (clumsiness, awkwardness), which after 15 years of age is gradually smoothed out thanks to the strengthening and improvement of the nervous regulation of movement.
most essential features inherent in the cardiovascular and nervous systems of the teenager.At this age, there is a significant increase in heart rate of growth in all areas, rapidly grow its size in 14-15 years - dramatically increasing body weight, the volume of the cavities;most intensively increases the left ventricle.Significantly changed histostructure infarction increases the diameter of the muscle fiber, reduces the number of vessels per unit area of the myocardium, etc. A feature of adolescence is asynchrony of individual cardiac structures, resulting in a temporary mismatch between the functionally important elements:. The rapid development of the myocardium and ended with the formation of nerve devices heartscapacity of the heart valve and mouths, with a capacity of cardiac cavities and lumen.Complex morphostructural change comes amid intense endocrine adjustment, the instability of regulatory mechanisms that underlies the often arising in this age of morphological and functional abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, heart development options.These include: changing the configuration and size of the heart (youthful hypertrophy, small heart, mitral configuration), inorganic irregular heart rhythm, tempo, and conductivity, transient increase in blood pressure, inorganic systolic murmur and other
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nervous system of adolescents
adolescence tend to decrease the threshold of excitability of the central nervous system, resulting in increased reactivity, often inadequate response to the nature and force of impact, marked instability of the autonomic nervous system.Cortical neurodynamics adolescents differs predominance of excitatory over inhibitory processes, so the behaviors of adolescents are often characterized by severe emotional, efficiency.
in adolescence significantly enhanced metabolism, especially protein, is characterized by a positive nitrogen balance, which is related to the amplification process of growth and development of tissues.
Features secretory-motor function of the stomach adolescents
Certain characteristics are inherent and gastric function.Significant autonomic instability causes pronounced lability of its secretion.The range of total acidity fluctuations and free hydrochloric acid in normal adolescents is very high, which reduces the diagnostic value of this indicator in pathological conditions.Yet young people often characterized by hypersecretion and hyperchlorhydria an empty stomach and in a phase of "sequential secretion."Motor function of the stomach is reinforced with a distinct tendency to spastic conditions, especially in the pyloric.These age-motor features of the secretory function of the stomach creating favorable conditions for the development of functional and expressed his pathological changes.
These features of the development of the body of a teenager determine the specificity of his reactions to various external conditions, including in the professional production factors.