The most prominent representatives of Russian therapeutic school
History Of Medicine / / August 12, 2017
Clinical teaching of M. Ya Mudrova (1776-1831) is a remarkable achievement of Russian science.His name was well known in Russia.It is often found in special works and in the memoirs.
Apprentice old professor of the Medical Faculty of Moscow State University, the founders of the Russian scientific medicine SG Zabelin and FG Politkovskaya MJ Mudrov considered his clinical teaching of a direct continuation of their views.
well acquainted during his travels in Western Europe, with the foreign physicians theories, methods of teaching, hospitals and clinics that period and comparing this with all his own, domestic, MJMudrov strongly rebelled against kowtowing to foreigners.
In MJ Mudrova combined the pursuit of scientific truth with the love of the fatherland.Social activists and Democrat, who comes from the people, he understood his needs.
basis of the true medicine for Mudrova serve as experience and reasoning.He rejected all far-fetched, the metaphysical.In the letters, and from the pulpit he repeate
MJ Mudrov taught that you can not create complex science of the sick person, based on any one branch of natural sciences.Neither the chemistry nor physics or mechanics, taken separately, do not bring a doctor to the goal.
medical practice that the clinician has been based on the study of individual characteristics of the patient.To do this, first of all, needed knowledge of normal and pathological anatomy, physiology and hygiene.
«Simplicity is the seal of truth", - he said wisely.In medicine, it is necessary to always go from simple to complex, from the known to the unknown.He understood the importance of the method: "The order is the key to all things."Mudrov seen how difficult it is at this level of science to give the correct definition of the disease.The disease, in his opinion, will never develop without disturbing the function and material changes in those or other organs.Both ultimately leads to disturbances of vital body functions.
object of medical science is the people - healthy, sick and dead.If a person is healthy, say the wise, that care physician is to prevent the occurrence of disease.If a person is ill, the doctor's goal - to stop and destroy the disease.If a person has died, it is necessary to understand the post-mortem changes in the body.
M. Mudrov I boldly looked into the future of medical science, he opened wide horizons.He understood that it was necessary to link medical practice hygiene - the science of rational norms of existence, and macrobiotics - the science of how to prolong life, because the main task of medicine is to fight for the eradication of diseases.
To solve all these problems enough to study only a sick body, for this it is necessary to know and what surrounds it.That is why the wise started the development of a detailed survey and inspection system of the patient, taking into account their individual properties
particular detail has been designed their impartial examination.He spent examination of the patient, adhering to anatomical order, and starts with the head.Mudrov pointed out that there are important sense organs, and most importantly the brain that controls the body.Study of the central nervous system and sensory organs, he assigned the first place.It is important to emphasize that the wise know and use physical methods of examination - percussion and auscultation.
clinician gave great importance to research the different types of heart rate determined by time, power, diameter of the arteries, stress, rhythm.In addition, he described the crisis and symptomatic heart rate.Highly detailed Mudrov studied arrhythmias, which he counted up to thirteen.
All the collected material a doctor at Mudrova must be synthetically comprehended to address four main objectives: on the nature of the disease, its form, stage and severity.
major achievement Mudrova was compiled them Classification of Diseases.The first classification have been proposed in the XVIII century, but their scientific and practical value was negligible.
All variety of human suffering he divided into eight classes.The basis of the two principles were put classification - physiological, ie, reduced or increased irritability bodies and anatomopathological...Diseases associated with increased irritability, according to the scientist, prevail.He divides them into inflammation (fever), Angiozyme-diseases of the vascular system, limfozy - diseases of lymphatic vessels and nodes, neuroses and splanhnozy - diseases of internal organs.
Neuroses, by definition Mudrova, usually occur due to increased stimulation of the nervous system.Recalling that the entire nervous system is divided into the brain, spinal cord and nerve ganglia, it is accordingly classified neural disease.The first group were classified as "mental illness, imagination, memory ', in other words, all mental disorders.The second group consisted of neuroses of the digestive, respiratory, circulatory.The latter group consisted of neuroses of the sexual sphere.
Classification Mudrova enjoyed most Russian doctors as long as it does not give way to other, new diseases system proposed by IE Dyadkovsky.
Mudrov demanded an individual approach to the patient, "Do not the disease taking medication, and the patient."With regard to its own success and the new things that he has made to science, the wise saying: "I'll tell you briefly and clearly: healing is the treatment of the patient.Here's the whole secret of my art. "
disease Mudrov understood as an abnormal condition of the body that occurs under the influence of numerous factors outside world.To find the cause of the disease, it is necessary "to look for them is sick," he said.The famous doctor therapist reminded that "it is impossible to believe in health alone pharmaceutical jars.Your pharmacy will be the whole of nature in the service of you and your patients. "Thus, in clinical teaching of Mudrova are further developed both preventive and therapeutic treatments.
No less remarkable MJ wise and as an educator.Talented critiques patients, vast knowledge, bright oratorical talent - all this attracted the students.Mudrov managed to raise hundreds of Russian doctors.Under his leadership, says a lot of scientific papers.From his hospital were such outstanding representatives of national and world science as NI Pirogov, GI Sokolsky and others. Mudrov rebuilt the teaching of medicine, giving great importance to the autopsy.The clinic Mudrova first began to keep detailed medical history.
MJ Mudrov not for a moment forget that his life and scientific work belongs to the people.Back in the early years of his professorship, when Russia was on the verge of terrible events of the war - the fight against Napoleon, it is wise to realize the need for training of doctors for the army.In 1809 he performed at the Moscow University with a speech "On the use of military and hygiene items."
Veliki merits MJ Mudrova and epidemiology.In severe cholera years (1830-1831) he was a senior physician of the Central Commission for the fight against the epidemic.In tsarist Russia the serf to fight this terrible disease was very difficult.And all the wise with the group of doctors coped well with this task.He proposed new methods of treatment of cholera, especially taking into account the patient's treatment and his mental state: "Nothing much is not harmful, as the fear of cholera and the fear of death" - he wrote in his "Treatise on cholera."Mudrov indicated that cholera, in essence, is an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.
with the name of M. Ya Mudrova the whole epoch in the development of domestic medicine.His fruitful scientific activity raised the prestige of Russian doctors both at home and abroad."After the visit Russian in Paris in 1814, French doctors have learned how to can shine in this kind of art without exception, our doctors."True democracy, the Wise was a man of high moral character.In the postwar years, when Moscow was in ruins, and the university was still effectively closed, it is "dependent for its own" opened the medical faculty.Later on his personal means building was constructed Clinical Institute.
MJ Mudrov gained immense popularity among the masses, the representatives of the progressive public.It is known that he was close to the Decembrists, and at the time of the brutal reaction helped exiled - to Siberia Muravyov brothers.Described his friendly meeting with PY Chaadaev, AI Turgenev and others. Without rest, heroically worked all his life, this outstanding figure of domestic medicine in the name of science and the health of the people, and called his disciples "to the works of the extraordinary.""In the physician's art - he said - there are no doctors who have completed their science."
Mudrova Influence on the development of advanced Russian medicine was very large.On the basis of the achievements of their predecessors - and Zybelina Mukhina - he created a clinical teaching, the foundation of which was laid a correct materialistic understanding of the disease as a process, in varying degrees, damaging the entire organism.Continuing the study of the nervous system influence on the occurrence of the disease and its treatment, the Wise had a noticeable impact on scientific thinking doctors of the second half of the XIX century, especially GA and AA Zakharyin Ostroumova.Creativity Mudrova, this remarkable clinician nervism contributed to the development of ideas in the Russian medicine.