History of medicine
History Of Medicine / / April 26, 2016
Lomonosov in a letter to I. Shuvalov (1761), paying attention to the high cost of foreign drugs, pointed to the need to seek means of pharmacies in the country.In the second half of the XVIII century, the Academy of Sciences and the Medical College organized a series of special expeditions in search of vegetable and mineral drugs.
Simultaneously, Russian doctors were engaged in scientific research in the field of pharmacology.In the period under review on the subject it was written over 230 special works.The doctors tried to use them to achieve the physics and chemistry.P. 3. Kondoidi in December 1755 addressed to the Lomonosov, to make an analysis of some salts and indicate whether they can use without harming the food.In 1767 he published work PD Benjamin, "On the properties and use of plants."Later on the same subject written study MM Terekhovsky.Significant place in the field of pharmacology occupy works NM Maksimovic-Ambodik and GF Sobolev.In all these works, Russian folk medicine has been widel
in special gardens continued cultivation of medicinal plants.Growth botanical knowledge contributed to the botanical gardens of St. Petersburg and Moscow.You can not at the same time not forget about some of the privately owned gardens.Thus, PA Demidov in his garden (about Donskoi Monastery on the banks of the Moscow River) collected about 2,000 varieties of rare, including medicinal, plant.The garden was laid out in 1765 and described by academician Pallas.Even more extensive and valuable was a garden in Gorenka near Moscow.There a number of different genera of plants reached 9000.
Doctors sought to avoid generic prescribing."But it is possible - wrote Russian translator medical book Buchan - the same drug by the patient different kind of ailments?Can one only with a knife to clean the stones, to plow the land, cut the bread, cut the grass, chopping wood, shaving beards and so on.?I dare say that those same way absurd and pernicious posoblyat one medicine not only various diseases, but also one, because it is not the same reason thereof, is not the same body of the patient, other circumstances are not the same, I do not mention here. "In these words is described figuratively look at the individual treatment methods, on the inadmissibility of the template, the need to carefully consider each case.
In addition, the best representatives of Russian medical science pointed out the inadmissibility of unreasonable methods of treatment, which is sometimes resorted to by the people.Here, above all, we had in mind, doctors impostors, charlatans and impostors, and those foreigners who, without permission from the College of Medicine, patients treated with some essences or balms unknown composition.
In the XVIII century, Western Europe was overrun by charlatans, who, having no concept of doctoring, but wanting to become famous, and most importantly to get rich, have declared themselves experts in the field of medicine.Some of them, like Gassner, tried to treat mental disorders religious rites, while others, like the Mesmer, sought to revive the astrological techniques.But the most famous in the field of this quack medicine one Balsamo (Count Cagliostro), who came to Petersburg.Many adventurers were willows Russia.The lack of doctors and excessive credulity in some places have contributed to their success.
That's why medical colleagues for all foreign doctors introduced screening examinations without special permission from their medical practice was banned.From doctors it needed not only knowledge of the business, but also the moral high ground.Any doctor, wrote D. Samoylovich, "tend to be decent impeccable behavior, which is the fruit of a successful education, which he received from the earliest far, and no matter how long his life, he should not be a step shy away from this path.In short, it must be the epitome of a decent man. "
Finally, it should be noted and that the materialist conception of the disease contributed to the development of protective measures, the treatment of a specific regime.SG Zybelin advocated the prolongation of life and pointed out that people have a lot of opportunities to not get sick.To this end, he suggested as a good warning system Events Cold Tempering the body, moderation in diet and abstinence from poor lifestyle choices.
However, the focus of Russian doctors were not only drug therapy.In accordance with the understanding of the disease as a pathological process that occurs under the influence of the external environment, doctors sought to spread among the people of health and sanitation knowledge to new treatments through the individual modes, and most importantly to the prevention of diseases.PD Benjamin in 1769 gave a speech at the university act "of fasting as a means, the safety of the disease."SG Zybelin all his medical practice developed in terms of preventive.M. I.Skiadan in 1794 devoted a special work issue of how to deal with the passions of the soul, which cause numerous and serious illnesses.