History of medicine
History Of Medicine / / April 23, 2016
AM Shymlanskaya (1748-1795) was a prominent local physicians of the XVIII century, left an imprint on the development of medicine.His doctoral thesis «De structura renum» was a great scientific achievement.AM Shymlanskaya investigated the structure of renal tissue, first described the capsule that surrounds the Malpighian glomeruli and abroad which was named incorrectly Bowman.Continuing to develop the main provisions of the new Russian therapeutic school, AM Shymlanskaya made an attempt to create a theory of medicine or, as he puts it, "the mark of the original medical system."The labor situation was based on the fact that the man and his life is the most difficult form of nature and the human body - the most important natural science object.
According to AM Shymlanskaya, world phenomena can be studied, first of all, to understand the environment in which people live and the forces which support its existence.All knowledge about the environment AM Shymlanskaya called "official" or those "that purify
Service Science needed a doctor.Indeed, no one doctor can not do without the knowledge of the language and its laws, without logic.Every doctor should know, and, moreover, well, the country where he lives.From the field of mathematics he needed all that promotes the assimilation of physics and other sciences.
mastered what has been said, the doctor will be able to easily explore the mineralogy, botany and zoology.These three sciences at Shymlanskaya constitute natural history, "which teaches historically recognize the body's natural".
But the most detailed knowledge about the properties of individual bodies will receive the doctor of natural philosophy or physics, "which explores the property of bodies and the statutes of their movements, as they are essential for anthropology."More precisely, the doctor must know the astronomy, mechanics, "the science of the properties of the elements", as well as optics and electricity.Only on the basis of the above it will be possible to understand the apothecary chemistry or science of medicines of mineral, vegetable and animal origin.This completes the classification of preparation or service of science.
other important medical knowledge is an anthropology department, or the "science of human nature, and of all that is necessary for life."According to AM Shymlanskaya, we must distinguish between theoretical and practical anthropology.Theoretical anthropology studies human in its entirety by what is learned in the service sciences, t. E., Taking into account the laws of natural science.Theoretical Anthropology is divided into hygiene and yatriku.Health studies the healthy nature of man.The main departments of knowledge here are anatomy and physiology.Anatomy shows the structure of the human body and must be studied almost human cadavers or, in extreme cases, on the corpses of animals, similar to the man.Physiology shows "according to the current in the body of vitality" and should also be studied on a living person.Yatrika is subject to a sick person, and is divided into nosology and pathology.The first section tells of the disease, the study of which should be done in public, and pathology explores painful seizures.
Applied anthropology is the highest development of medical science, its ultimate goal.Here we are talking about the most important - "the preservation of human health and the nature of the amended by painful dreams application of all sciences, in congruent with the anthropological history."The first section, which is now called to prevention should be treated on how to maintain a healthy nature of man, AM Shymlanskaya called it dietetics.There should be studied all that is necessary to maintain physical health, and that it is harmful.Then it is necessary to study and all that pertains to the soul, "showing the effect of the passions in the human body, in life it necessary, beneficial and harmful, as the doctor is must see."
therapeutics called science that seeks to restore "the painful nature of man through healing diseases or painful seizures through medication internal and external."Therapeutics can be called speculative, if the doctor uses the funds' historical knowledge of which is shown in various natural sciences. "To this it should seek, and such treatment is the most scientifically valid.But where it is impossible to apply a speculative treatment, or, as we would say now that a rational, there is recourse to the experimental therapeutics (empirical).
This medicine theory of the second half of the XVIII century, the author has not forgotten any of the surgery, nor on special disciplines, known at that time, - dental diseases, eye and obstetrics.On the history of medicine, he said: "The history of medical learning, and especially anthropological describing is not the life of writers, but their invention and memorable views also belongs to the doctor."
Thus, for AM Shymlanskaya, the author of the above theory of medical knowledge based on medical practice, mainly of Russian scientists, in addition to the moral high medical qualities are paramount ways to study a patient's body, taking into account environmental features.Doctors have to know the customs and habits of the people, where they practice.Medicine, which tried to justify theoretically AM Shymlanskaya was science, particularly necessary for the masses.
Democracy AM Shymlanskaya and similar patriotic doctors met opposition from the ruling class and foreign doctors.This fight is extremely complicated by the development of advanced medical thought in the XVIII century, and in the future.The more clearly revealed the materialist understanding of the disease, the more insistent opponents of doctors Democrats have used all the right, in their view, the idealist philosophical theory to discredit the achievements of scientific medicine.The dilapidated scholastic speculation, modernized Catholicism kantiantstvo, mystical philosophy of Schelling - all in varying degrees, was used by reactionaries to stifle the living springs of creative thought.Where it was not possible to do so ideologically, there reactionaries sought his administrative means.