History of medicine
History Of Medicine / / April 22, 2016
successor and continuer of the teachings SG Zybelina was Fedor Gerasimov Politkovskaya.He was born in 1756 in the family of archpriest of the Chernigov Regiment.He studied at the Chernigov Theological Seminary.From 1775 to 1778 he was a student of philosophy and medicine at the University of Moscow.After a trip abroad in Leiden and Paris, where FG Politkovskaya was sent to study the medicine of Western Europe and the defense of the thesis, it is on trial at the Medical college, I got the right doctor of medicine and since 1783 began teaching at the University of Moscow.After the death of SG Zybelina in 1802 Politkovskaya was entrusted the teaching of practical medicine.
first printed work FG Politkovsky - his doctoral thesis «De pyogenia seu formatione puris», released in Leiden in 1781. In this paper, the author analyzed the question of the nature of inflammation.Following a review of the main theories of inflammation and their critical analysis Politkovskaya expressed its own views.According to him
favorable flow those inflammations which occur on the external parts of the body - "far from large vessels."But if pus rush to the internal organs, especially important, there is a threat to life.Contrary to the prevailing at the time, according to doctors FG Politkovskaya believed that physicians in the treatment of patients can not rely on the forces of nature: "Physicians need to pay attention to, to counteract the nature and not only be an idle spectator, but to act in time to resume the insensitivityand dying to return to life. "
not touching the private methods of treatment of inflammatory diseases, the author gives a general guiding rule, which is to remember every physician - is, above all, ease the pain and has a positive effect on the nervous system of a patient's body: "For example, in respect of each part before you appointtreatment, it is necessary to carry out treatment of the nerves. "
characteristic for this work prof.FG Politkovskaya, and to all their clinical thinking as the representative of the new, arises only Russian medical school, a deep understanding of the need for an experienced, objective investigation of the nature of the body of the patient and critical attitude to the speculative theories.. Reviewing some of the views and theoretical views of eminent physicians era as Boerhave, Haller et al, FG Politkovskaya said: "Though the grandeur that surrounds these men, and obliges me to consider their peaks of science, but by their opinions, I do not subscribeI can".
FG Politkovskaya in the early years of his scientific career devoted much attention to questions of natural history."Getting acquainted with the history of science, - he said, - convinced that the description of the natural bodies of our first century (TE XVIII) were so scarce that hardly one can get kakuyu-nibud favor: for there is no order in the add-inlocation of objects or precise items that are required for this science. "FG Politkovskaya stressed the importance of not speculative and experimental disciplines.In this regard, the importance of natural history had offices which existed in England, Italy, Denmark and Sweden.The Russian was a great Kunstkammer established by Peter the Great.The study of natural history was necessary for doctors: they receive information about healthy foods, about drugs, about the rational dress, rational construction of buildings, etc. The impact of this discipline extended to physics, chemistry, as well as various arts and crafts..That's why natural history as the amount of information about the world was necessary first of all medicine.But as the proliferation of this science, vast as nature itself, it became separated from the individual branches of knowledge.Hence, says FG Politkovskaya and were the beginning of modern physics, chemistry, and medical skill.
Medical Science, by FG Politkovskaya, is the result of "the knowledge of certain plants and other things inside or outside consumed in befall a human disease."It defines medicine as a science based on reason and experience, having the aim of "common human condition of the body to store and damaged as possible, correcting and rebuilding through proper diet and experience useful approved drugs and guns."
The clinical activity of FG Politkovsky must be specially set off his deep and sharp criticism.This helped him to correctly understand the complex and often contradictory, directions of medical science.Politkovskaya was published, in which he evaluated the most important scientific achievements of the XVIII century.He believed that this era has given many brilliant discoveries.However, "if we consider all that had happened in the course of this century works and even more - of the invention, opinions, hypotheses, theories and systems, we can see - he writes Politkovskaya - that medical science has remained exactly with such a well at the end of the XVIII century, by what wasthe beginning. "Why did this happen?
Despite the fact that doctors have long been freed from the shackles of the monastic philosophy, they are "still in the course of the XVII century have fallen into a philosophical anarchy that there was not a stupid fable, no magic magical verbiage or some astronomical and alchemical fantasies,no superstitious opinions, which would not be accepted in medical science. "Not helped the physician and philosopher X. Wolff, teaches to base opinions on the evidence.Aspiration in medicine would begin at all costs from the Wolf "has filed a reason to ridiculous and sometimes harmful abuses."
At the end of the century Wolff, Kant succeeded in this regard.FG Politkovskaya negative attitude to the views of those doctors that his science "gives a critical view of the philosophy and the language of it, think to take precedence over the other, dreaming of the possibility to establish medicine on some imaginations and grandiloquence of transcendental philosophy, from the close range of phenomenain which there are, they want to go into an infinite imaginary transcendental area of medicine. "He emphasized the harmful confusion when experienced medical science interfere with the metaphysics of Aristotle, Kant and Wolff.
flimsy speculative theory, penetrating to the empirical sciences, generates a lot of errors.That is why, in spite of the achievements in the field of physics and chemistry, in the XVIII century medical thought, is in captivity of various idealistic philosophical systems, failed to timely use many natural science achievements.Politkovskaya pointed out that every well-meaning doctor with hardness should reveal such errors.We can not allow science scored a narrow victory, dogmatic minds, loving more than idle philosophizing than pilot watch.Understanding all the importance and role of the doctor, saving the health or life of the patient, FG Politkovskaya exclaimed: "The time to stop the abuse and to establish the truth on the basis of immutable!»
significant obstacle to the development of scientific medicine is the spirit of sectarianism, mastered the supporters of one or the other of the founderschool.For example, Stahl's theory, which had some value at a certain stage of development of science, stubbornly defended by some followers of the doctor even when it has lost all meaning.In science we need a free struggle of ideas and opinions."Who does not agree - said FG Politkovskaya - that we were not required most of the current progress in chemistry attacks one party to another, as well as their manifold systems, opinions, hypotheses?»
FG Politkovskayanoted that disagreements and misconceptions often lit up by light of scientific truth.That's why "should not complain about the disagreement of our opinions, our disputes and contradictions."Turning to the major doctors of the past, he pointed to the achievements of Sydenham, Boerhaave, Hoffmann, Stahl.However, progress has been negligible in the field of diagnostics.Depending on what kind of pathology in medicine prevailed, prevailed or that disease (or rather, diagnoses).In the time of Stahl everywhere we found hemorrhoids, drove to the disorders mentioned bodies, etc. The well-known English writer of the time Fielding of medicine at the time, wrote during the reign of the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract all diseases:.. "To tell the truth, almost every physician has his own favoritedisease, which he attributes all the victories over human nature.Gout, rheumatism, stones, consumption - all have their patriots in the scientific board, especially as a fever or nervous jitters. "
Politkovskaya believed that the greatest achievement of XVIII century had in the etiology and semiotics.Moving forward was the emergence of nosological systems Sauvage, Linnaeus, Vogel and Cullen.A positive fact was, in his view, the transition from pathology to the disease moisture solids.He also noted the new inflammation theory, the theory of contagious diseases description of angina pectoris and so forth.
No less interesting and his "Brief review of the medical history before the time of Cullen," published after the author's death.Analyzing the views of the ancient physicians and pointing to their passion for philosophy, Politkovskaya wrote: "But all these philosophers, being passionate about a vivid imagination, a little contributed to the success of practical medicine, because they are not quite clings to consider the phenomena of nature."he said of the doctors of antiquity primarily Hippocrates: "He first joined the experience with reasoning why and revere him chief doctors dogmatic;it was left to disperse the gloomy clouds, covering medicine, expel all superstitious drugs and assure that all diseases stem from natural causes.Being gifted with excellent genius and great insight, he immediately embraced all parts of philosophy, and it seems that among philosophers, as well as between the doctors, was the first.Plato took all his opinions, and not that of Aristotle's works are nothing like the interpretation of the philosophy of medicine father. "FG Politkovskaya pointed out that everything written by Hippocrates of air and food, deserves special attention.
Of the other doctors of antiquity, he stops at the Asclepiades, Celsus and Galen.The latter Politkovskaya thought that "the theory of it was very limited, the base was thin and in particular was disorderly mixing liquids."Then, striking the Middle Ages as a useless, in his opinion, the development of science, he mentions of Paracelsus, "who rebelled against Hippocrates, Galen and Celsus and first started to do chemical research."But the chemistry of that era had little effect on the development of medicine.In an effort to find new drugs, chemists, doctors have forgotten the old helpful, and as a result, up to Sydenham, Europe in the field of medical science has made little progress."We have seen - explains Politkovskaya - that the ancients have collected a lot of precious deeds, koi are only in their books, but instead of following the example of the ancient follow nature, noticing the progress thereof, began to engage in explaining his theories, or instead of these or make other,tried to distinguish only the initial attacks of disease, despised finding proximate causes, is important to know the right, because it often happens that the disease, of which seizures are the same, there are different characteristics and require different drugs often even quite nasty. "Politkovskaya was a proponent of experimental medicine based on science.He considered it necessary to know perfectly the history of science, as we understand that true knowledge is the sum of the information obtained as a result of gradually accumulated and verifiable experience and a critical perception of the inheritance of the past centuries.Politkovskaya demanding study of the causes of disease and at the same time, continuing the ideas of his teacher SG Zybelina, attached special importance nutrition and behavior of patients.In one of his letters to his disciples approached him with questions about the method of treatment of H. Frank, he replied: "A method for treating H. Frank me some known;but I do not intend to use it at my old age years because my routine for me very often been successful.Reinforced by the nature of the weak, and to stop the waves thereof include actions to correct the boundaries - the post was a doctor and there from the time of Hippocrates to this day ... In all systems advise to look impartial eyes, with which should be guided reason and experience.So did Hippocrates and all the great men.This is the high road, and systems are the road Country.Wanting to achieve its object in by these roads is very often repented, fleeing into the swamp that left a well-known way, and try to turn back the aforesaid.Here is my opinion on systems.Medical history of these things is a sure proof.In short, my dear friends, you should hear and see;steelyard but your arguments should always be with you. "
contemporaries who have had the opportunity to observe FG Politkovskaya remembered, he was tireless in work, resolute in difficult cases, perspicacious in danger and candor on the boards.He never hid his mistakes.As a lecturer he possessed the gift of speech to perfection and his university and public lectures are always a success.There is evidence that his lecture had to learn Russian language correctness of such artists as VP Pomerantcev, PA Plavilshchikov and Sandunova.He loved to listen to NM Karamzin.
FG Politkovskaya highly of the medical profession.On this occasion, he wrote: "How to be refused to someone who does not these things important title with due care and diligence sends.Colic praise, on the contrary, is worthy of one who, having devoted his life to one, all of its natural features and the acquired information, the fact that the human species to be useful in maintaining such a precious treasure, what is health! ".
Hot supporter of education, NI Novikov, FG Politkovskaya each humanist and educator both their knowledge and expertise, and financially assisted in the publication of several magazines of the time.In one of them were first printed VA Zhukovsky and VT Narezhny.
Enrolling young men in Moscow University, first FG Politkovskaya studied philosophical discipline, and then mainly engaged in physics and chemistry."But the knowledge of dead nature laws - wrote about him prof.VP Rizenko - could limit his curiosity.Following the inclination of his heart, he decided to make a move much further, in order to become, along with Hippocrates, Galen, Boerhaave. "
Prof.VP Rizenko in a speech January 13, 1812, in memory of Politkovskaya, said: "Not having the time is no strong support for the acquisition of flattering name of the great doctor, but one only of his own great genius, he was with him in the lightand I was so happy to be in his early medical experience could apply the correct hand to those patients who had already been rejected in the means to recovery. "
FG Politkovskaya was one of the prominent physicians of his time.He embodied the best features of Russian medical school at the time - the skeptical attitude towards speculative theories, rational empiricism and largely correct historical evaluation of the achievements of modern science.