History of medicine
History Of Medicine / / April 21, 2016
In the XVIII century, especially in the second half, there were a significant number of doctors in Russia.Many of them have left a significant mark in the medical science, creating works on anatomy, physiology, medical practice.Some of these works become the property of all of medical science.To understand the main stages in the development of the doctrine of internal medicine in Russia there is no need to dwell on the analysis of everything that has been achieved in this field of knowledge - enough to meet, with the creative achievements of the most prominent representatives of science.
At the root of clinical medicine are two remarkable figure in Russia, which ushered in the main direction in the field of therapy - Professor of the Moscow University Zybelin SG and FG Politkovskaya.
Clinical views SG Zybelin well.Semen Gerasimov was born on April 6, 1735 After graduating from the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, he enrolled at the newly opened in 1755 Moscow University.The first teachers were professors
Over 30 years SG Zybelin lectured on theoretical and practical medicine.During the plague epidemic in 1771 he was a member of the Committee for the fight against the disease.In 1784 for merits in the field of literary scientific language Zybelin samples was elected a full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
in understanding the world around Zybelin based on two main criteria - experience and reason.Experience gives knowledge "about the immeasurable depths of all things" where "everything is in constant movement."The "neither the greatest part of the other and without the slightest can not be valid."But little knowledge of the nature of experimental observations, "must take reasonable care to distrust."Nature can not be studied by following the scientist authorities, who "by force of arms to it their laws prescribe."We must not be afraid to liberate science from false myths as "robkost in opening their free opinions Sciences indecent."
By Zybelinu, in the human body "in the hold small, but wisdom in building one can find almost like everything in the vastness of space and the great of this world is."Person grows and is powered in the same manner as any other animal organisms.There are the usual laws of nature.Therefore, the human body is subject to both physical and chemical research.Zybelin suggested that in later times often forget that there is a science that does not have to do with the study of the body.
study of the body must begin with a study of the impact that the surrounding matter and especially the air.Air embraces not only man, but it is in the tissues.If impede access of air, "you would easy bubbles clenched and fell off," that would impede the flow of blood.
arguing about the origin of the human body, SG Zybelin suggests that in nature all solids were once liquid.The density and hardness occurred gradually as heat loss.As proof of the position that "everything is born from a liquid" Zybelin pointed to the formation of "Pleven" in the blood, gallstones, and the living beings wrote: "... at the beginning of the birth of her nothing but all were asonly one drop of fluid. "Why liquid body becomes dense?Zybelin believed that all transformation is the result of action "attractive force".
life of the body - a process of gradual dehydration.Youth passes in old age, and old age is the result of immobility oplotneniya tissues.For life requires a certain temperature.Zybelin distinguish between external and internal heat.But excessive heat is bad, so Zybelin objected to get used to the heat.Especially great harm greatly overheated houses, mezzanines.In the XVIII century in the attic liked to arrange the children's rooms.Such parenting lead to their exhaustion and disease.Warm couches, very common at the time, contributed to the common cold and fevers.By the cold, he said Zybelin, should be accustomed from an early age.Even falling ill, do not seek to heat.
body is warmed excessively by excessive consumption of spicy substances, a large number of warm drinks.Zybelin was not against the bath, but he reminded that it is harmful to many.We can not recommend a bath full-blooded, suffering from shortness of breath, tuberculosis, poor people.Frequent sweating is injurious to health.Instead hot baths more suitable "bath of icy water made up."Get used to the cold water is necessary in the summer.Bathing, regardless of the weather, it is necessary to continue to fall and, even further, but with caution.SG Zybelin was a proponent of a systematic hardening.He taught that in this way you can avoid many diseases.Doubling precaution from the cold, we tripled the damage and remain vulnerable to the cold.That is why we must fight for a sensible and hygienic order of life, to accustom themselves to the cold air, warm rooms to avoid, as far as possible to reduce the heat of the dress, eat cool food and drink, to sleep in the open air, practicing in motion, to get used to cold baths.From this "many diseases, koi our ancestors were little known, but now almost all are with overkill, just disappear and in their place come the natural properties of the Russians fortress, strength, courage, what all my fellow citizens heartily wish."
But paying attention to external circumstances, Zybelin same time pointed out that many of the diseases depend on the human body itself, its features, and most importantly, from human behavior.That is why, in order to better preserve itself, it is necessary "in order to enter the property of all, that we comply with."Everyone should understand that it is harmful and what is useful for him.However, all is not so simple, because the variety of the phenomenal world is constantly hit by a man with sense and it 'paths right path leaves, arranging everything just at the whim of his. "SG Zybelin argued that the limit of our life is much higher than the one that we see that a person can live for over 100 years and, moreover, are not aching.But few enjoy such longevity.If we exclude the "cruel kind of life and unexpected exception", the man himself is to blame for his short age.It is necessary to examine your body, learn his tendencies and then we can live a long and healthy life.Zybelin wrote: "If it were possible to find vrachestvo to idleness, to intemperance and bad passion, it would have been universally signified healing everyone and almost all diseases of human Opposite."
Both life and health, on Zybelinu arise as a result of relative motion of solid and liquid particles.From the same independent and different states of physical and mental abilities.In one of his works, the author gives a vivid picture of taken medicine has long been, since the time of Hippocrates, the basic types of addition-phlegmatic, choleric, melancholic and sanguine.Phlegmatic addition is characterized by the weakness of the solid particles, low sensitivity, slow pulse, full, soft body.Phlegmatic not differ by reason, moderate in passion, lazy.They need to strengthen the solid parts of the body to use less liquid, they are useful for the food animal.In choleric thin solid parts of the body, the muscles - dense body dryly.They are sharp mind, resourceful, cunning, stubborn, but power over a not tolerate and love the praise.They are useful vegetable food and beverages in moderation.Melancholic lean and strong;within the meaning of slow but profound;imagine all the difficulties, but overcome.They are vindictive and lovers of money, do not differ good health, prone to hypochondria.These people usually deliver a lot of trouble to doctors.Zybelin writes about them with his characteristic expressiveness that "in time to use them chiefly those (doctors), koi are drugs iron, gold tongue and ears - lead."Sanguine - a complete contrast to the melancholic.The physical structure of their most harmonious.These people have an extensive memory in excess of their mind.Despite the very great knowledge, they are not very capable in the sciences.They are "small deeds are great, the mighty - small."Prone to the whims and talkative."Friends only at the table ... stewards, caretakers unreliable."Due to excess in food are often sick.
Outlining figuratively, sometimes artistically, often with irony and sarcasm, the physiological characteristics of the human body as they represent the ancient himself SG Zybelin attitude to all this critical and thought that people can not fit in the scheme invented anthropology and the humanthe body is more complex than commonly thought.His point of view at that time was new.Zybelin defended the uniqueness of each human person."Almost every man, - he wrote - Especially his own and proper to him alone belongs the addition has."Zybelin tried to understand, with the result that there is the individual characteristics of the organism.Are they innate nature of the century created and inherited or dependent on the lifestyle and education?Here Zybelin stood on the right path: he decided the issue in favor of the latter."The truth is that the first has a very strong effect in human nature ... and why the knowledge of the properties of the people on the outside view has some basis.But often that is the truth is very far from now, outside speculation, because it often happens that the force of nature and a lack of education prepobezhdaet ".He reasoned that, if you can not win a big stupid, like something to correct it is still possible.Education and science can change the inclination "by adding disadvantages depend."Elsewhere, Zybelin wrote that "the mind and manners may be corrected, despite the addition of disadvantages" and that "these should depend more on education."
Zybelin believed that person has all the possibilities for long-term life.But usually the opposite is true and people are more likely to die in young and middle age than in old.Why is this happening?What determines health?To answer these questions with the utmost care Zybelin parses all of the most significant, which is associated with raising a child.
child Health, first of all, depends on the parents' health.Therefore, people who want to have healthy children, must comply with a certain lifestyle.They should not overeat, and strive to obesity.In addition, it must be remembered that passion exhausting body.These tips are addressed to individuals secured classes.As for the villagers, leading a simple life, they have, according to Zybelina, would always be healthy offspring, if they can look after their children and bring them up properly.
In a clinical doctrine Zybelina main disease was a warning by mode effects on the body, improving sanitary conditions of life."Do not be the first place is occupied by the observance of health and life?" - He wrote.Some of his speeches Zybelin dedicated specifically to prevention.To combat disease and early mortality, it is necessary to "observe various natural causes producing the judges: for example, an unhealthy situation of the village, which houses its living born and have ... The place or the whole country should read health, which is less and lessis an epidemic and other diseases, little is dying and babies, in front of the elderly is a sufficient number. "
To make life a healthy and long, it is necessary to strive for normal social and public welfare, to encourage marriage, reduce the extraordinary taxes and "other circumstances of oppression", but is especially important to prevent the occurrence of diseases, "koi not just by chance, but constantly acting more exterminateof the human race, than other (reason). "That is the struggle for the prevention of disease and devoted SG Zybelin their strength as a physician, scientist and public figure.
SG Zybelin believed in the future of science and teaching young people to be bold and daring.Observing differences and the thoughts of the representatives of medical science in Europe, fighting their ideas, protection of views, based on the often empty fictions, he pointed to the need to be critical of other people's views, do not settle with the authority or with the nobility of the authors.Sam SG Zybelin created his clinical teaching, based on the observations of the healthy and sick body, over the life and customs of its people, the country's nature.
At SG Zybelina, the founder of Russian science of the sick person in a lot in common with the MV Lomonosov scientific and philosophical perception of the world.Materialist solution to the basic philosophical problems, look at the body as a body subordinate to the universal laws of nature, an understanding of the environment surrounding the body values - these are the main points of which after MV Lomonosov and other domestic materialist philosopher came in his clinical teachingsSG Zybelin.
Reading speech this wonderful doctor, convinced not only in the freshness of his thoughts, but in the purity of his literary style, in clarity.The largest philologist and historian prof.DM Kryukov, who studied the manuscript Zybelina not extant, wrote about his impressions in a letter dated July 17, 1842 FI Buslaev, "How talented are our predecessors.I read their manuscripts.I saw what a great job they were doing before you pay anything in its light.They need to learn.I was struck by Zybelin.His manuscript in some places many times crossed, and some phrases are repeated over and over in other species.What a marvelous language was the man in the 70s of the last century!The mere fact that he has done for medical science, creating a correct, precise and clear, elegant language, makes it unforgettable for us. "