History of medicine
History Of Medicine / / April 19, 2016
During the XVI and XVII centuries the Russian people, courageously repel enemy invasion rallied around Moscow and has created a strong state.The need for the development of trade relations with its neighbors, the desire to use natural resources of the country were reasons for converting the reforms of Peter the Great.There is industry, built factories, the new city.Renewed and increased troops and re-built a strong navy demanded greater public spending.In this regard were increased taxes and prices of essential items that bear a heavy burden on the masses.The merchants and feudal-aristocratic elite, using the impoverishment of the people, have accumulated wealth.In these complex and contradictory social conditions to develop scientific thought in Russia.
To build factories, produce coal, iron and so on., It was necessary to examine the nature of the country.In the XVIII century in our country widely developed activity of many naturalists, explorers and travelers.These men of science with tireless zea
Captain Sarychev for 8 years (1785-1793) traveled to the North-eastern Siberia, sailed in the Arctic seas and the Pacific Ocean.SPKrasheninnikov studied unknown before Kamchatka.Ivan Lepekhin visited with a scientific purpose various places in European Russia.Zuev published record of the journey from St. Petersburg to Kherson (1781).It started compiling topographical descriptions of the various cities of the empire.
study of the country's natural wealth, their exploitation, development of the industry the interest in the natural sciences and especially in chemistry, physics, geology.Centre, manages the activities of scientists and amateur naturalists, the Academy of Sciences was established in 1725, however, the work of academics was fruitful enough in the early years.This is partly explained by the fact that the main frames Academy were composed of foreigners.Academy of Sciences Jobs revived after the entry into it of MV Lomonosov.He led the fight against the dominance of foreigners.Exceptional value for the Russian and world science had its works in the field of chemistry, physics, astronomy, geology.
As a result of the collective work of Russian scientists of the XVIII century was assembled considerable material for the study of native wildlife and its subsoil, systematized in the works of Severgina, George and others. All of these studies were of exceptional importance for the further progress of the natural sciences.Works botanists MI Afonin, M. Maksimovic, PD Benjamin, GF Sobolev, anatomists M. Shein, GI Bazilevich, PA Zagorski, physiologists MI Skiadana,FI-Badger Moses, EO Mukhin, biologists Terekhovskaya MM, AA Kaverzneva, K. Wolf, along with the works mentioned scientists and travelers have created fertile ground for the development of medicine.
At the same time we must not forget about the importance of linkages with the global science.Travel Russian youth to study abroad started at the beginning of the century, more and more frequent.For the study of medicine and the protection of theses young doctors traveled to Halle, Heidelberg, Strasbourg, Leiden.Meetings with foreign scientists, their familiarity with the methods of research enriched our physicians.Acknowledging the significant and practically important, local doctors very often critically assessed the philosophical views of foreign authorities.This is due to the fact that the majority of Russian doctors the second half of the XVIII century there were materialists, Lomonosov followers.
great scientist, the founder of the corpuscular theory of the structure of matter, the world phenomenon explained the motion of material particles "corpuscles in living and dead animals move in plants living and the dead are moving, and also in minerals and inorganic solids, therefore, in everything."Claiming a look at the phenomena of the universe, Lomonosov pointed to the complete failure of the philosophical concept of Leibniz.So about Lomonosov he said that "... because it is not the right system began many harmful creeps in medicine and other sciences."The philosophical position of this man of genius were a reliable basis for theoretical medicine.
The development of Russian medicine was greatly influenced by the people, is the social environment from which came most of the physicians of that era.The sons of the lower clergy, who are vitally connected with the people, or come from a military background, they knew the customs of the people and their needs.Delving into the causes of disease, physicians have come to an important conclusion that the disease in most cases depends on the lifestyle, environmental conditions, the natural environment.All this has helped them to create a materialistic doctrine of the disease and thus to lay the foundations of a new clinical system.