History of medicine
History Of Medicine / / August 12, 2017
Medicine - the oldest part of the human culture.The desire for self-preservation always made people look for more and more money from the disease."Medicine is an area of human knowledge, which are the beginnings of the first steps of the conscious relationship of man to his environment" (SP Botkin).
Great Russian plain, especially in the southern parts of the steppe and the Dnieper, had been from time immemorial inhabited by Slavic tribes.The rich nature of the country with its boundless steppes in the south, dense forests in the north, with its abounding rivers, diverse flora and fauna abundant material delivered for the healing of wounds and disease.
Every nation origins of medicine to be found in the most ancient forms of healing.Russian Folk medicine, as well as the nature of the country is extremely rich.For therapeutic purposes, the people first of all, the products of flora have been used.It has long had the belief that "from any illness in the woods growing grass."Based on the study of anc
Over time, people began to use as therapeutic agents and products of animal world.There is evidence that, for example, castoreum as medicine began to be used for the first time in Kievan Rus.
If all this add some drugs of mineral origin, such as lead, copper, silver nitrate, it turns out that the choice of medicinal potions, available to the Old Russian "lechtsa" was quite extensive.
adoption of Christianity made it possible to Kievan Rus to get acquainted not only with the culture of the Byzantine Empire, but also the achievements of ancient Greek science.There was written, the book began to appear, which along with other information outlining the issues and healing.When the monasteries were opened at home for the treatment of patients, the elderly.At that time there were healers, known successful treatment of disease.Especially famous for this art Monk Agapit, a native resident of Kiev Prince Vladimir Monomakh fashioned from some serious illness.Agapit died in 1095
Among the methods of ancient healing treatment took a considerable place ointments, massage.Rubbing considered serious means to maintain health, but particular success as a hygienic and therapeutic remedies for various ailments enjoyed baths.Foreigners who came to Kievan Rus, amazed method of washing in the Slavic settlements.The chronicle of Nestor (XII century) there is a description of baths: "... We have seen the baths Tree and perezhgut e Velma, and will sovlokutsya Nazi and obleyutsya usniyannym kvass, and take on syaprute old, beat themselves, and that smiling will finish, when thou come out liveand obleyutsya water jelly, tacos come to life. "
about "the structure of the sauna" is mentioned in Nikon's chronicle: "... and the bath structure and vracheve, and hospitals, all of which come bezmezdno doctoring."These ancient baths, hospitals have been very popular.They were treated not only by fevers, but also from lumbago, skin diseases, ulcers.This ancient method of balneotherapy served as the theme of the monograph written by a doctor I. Voyno Kura in Moscow in 1826 (De balneis in genere et de balneis rossicis in specie).
therapeutic baths value is reflected in the folk proverbs and sayings: "Banya -mat second", "Had it not been room, all we lost," Russian people forgot or a holiday or after work to go to the sauna and steam bath.In the poem "Ruslan and Ludmila" Pushkin said:
«But before the boy led to a magnificent Russian bath."
Hygienic significance baths very much.It's hard to find a Russian village, where residents do not have it and did not use them.SP Botkin in the late 60-ies of the last century, wrote: "What I know, the Russian common people more concerned about the purity of your body than any other European nation.Weekly visits to the bath is almost a religious rite: a woman will not go to church after a month, not having been in the bath. "Among the works devoted to health topics, it is necessary to mention the Greek manuscripts "Masi", written by the granddaughter of Vladimir Monomakh Eupraxia (in Greek, Zoe), who was the wife of Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus.At home, in Kiev, it seems, was interested in folk remedies and it served as the basis for its future work.
Historians of medicine have not studied throughout the volume of all connected with the development of medicine in Kievan Rus.However, what has become known in this respect, makes it possible to assert that the medical information in Kievan Rus were significant.
Military and political events of the XIII century, associated with the aggressive movement of the Mongols in the West, put on the brink of disaster and the Kievan state.Kiev squads successfully fend raids of the Khazars, Polovtsy and other nomads, could not resist the hordes of Batu.By 1240 it was completed the conquest of Kievan Rus Tatars."From that time to this ancient region of Russia, once so densely populated, for a long time turned into a desert with meager remnants of the former population."Residents of the country began to move to the north and north-east.For a long time will remain silent Russian earth, weighed down Tatar yoke.But in the fight against Russian forces Mongols ran out and they have not moved further to the west."The image of enlightenment was rescued ravaged and expiring Russia" (Pushkin).
But even in this difficult period of our history, in XIII-XV centuries, the springs of knowledge is not exhausted.A new page of Russian history began with the end of the XIV century, when a number of economic and political events made it possible for the Moscow principality start unification of Russian lands and freeing them from the Tartar yoke.Since the XV century, the rebirth of the country.In this era of Russian medicine and changing.The basis for reviving medicine remained all the same experience of traditional medicine, but more enriched.In the XV and XVI centuries, begins the influx of foreign doctors who were invited primarily to serve the royal court.The people and the army special healers hardly served.However, the need for health was great, because of the epidemic and the war carried off many victims.For example, the plague, the first time brought to the Hanseatic ships in Pskov, repeatedly produced devastating effects.Information about the first quarantine events organized by public authorities, related to 1654
In the reign of Ivan the Terrible, our medicine starts to get on your feet.The decisions Hundred Chapters Council (1551) takes a place sanitation and hygiene issues.All hospitals and almshouses of monastic conduct transmitted secular power.In the 73rd chapter of the Council decisions it is written: "Yes, so commands pious king of lepers and grown old in every city OPRICH healthy, and in koemzhde hail ustroiti poorhouse for men and women, and the lepers and prestarevshihsya and are not able to nowhere head prekloniti ustroiti in hospicemeat and clothes. "There are health guidance and in the famous essay of the XVI century "Domostroy".
Lack of doctors and medical schools forced the government to send young people abroad to study the doctor's case.In 1512 one of them, George Skorina from Polotsk, finished a course of medical sciences in one of the best universities of the time - Padua (Italy), where he defended his doctoral dissertation.
But neither sending Russian abroad or inviting foreign doctors did not significantly improve the situation of health care in the country.Doctors foreigners also were expensive, and most importantly, did not know any Russian language or customs of the people;In addition, some of them turned out to be adventurers.All this has forced to think about preparing their own doctors.The ground for this was available.By XVI century accumulated a certain number of training manuals.In the Russian language anatomy Andrew Vesalius was partially translated.There were herbalists, in some cases, richly supplied with images of medicinal herbs.There were also books on pharmacology, children's and women's diseases.The "Cool Vertograd" was presented as an encyclopedia of medicine would be the time.
Since its inception in 1581 Aptekarskaya Chamber of medical affairs organization gradually began to improve.In 1620, the House has been transformed into the Order, led by boyar Fyodor Ivanovich Sheremetev.
first Apothecary order was in charge of the court only medicine, but then it spread its influence throughout the country.The order was in charge of surgeon's staff, their distribution, forensic autopsy, the workpiece and the purchase of medicines.When the Order of the two pharmaceutical garden was diluted.Order taking measures to ensure that the increased production of its own crude drug, has made that the black hellebore began to get out of Kolomna, chechuynuyu grass - Kazan, malt root - from Astrakhan, St. John's wort and rhubarb - from Siberia.
Order was located in Moscow and held a number of buildings in the city center.At the disposal of the Order were and pharmacies, which were opened in the country since 1581 (Moscow).When order had Apothecary Medical Library.
In 1654, the Order has created a medical school in Moscow.It was designed for the training of military doctors and her children were taken only archers.At school, he studied anatomy, drugs, surgery.The first edition was held in 1660, history has preserved for us the names of doctors of the first issue:. Kirill Avdeev, Stepan Alexeev, Ivan Antonov Nikita Afanasyev, Ivan Markov, Sergei Prokofiev and others
Opening of public hospitals also belongs to the middle of the XVI century.One of the first was a hospital at the Trinity-Sergius Lavra.Of the known private hospital, opened in the second half of the XVII century boyar Fyodor Mikhailovich Rtishchev.
begin a more organized during this period and to fight infectious diseases, fever, epidemic.In 1660 it was ordered to homeowners reported to the authorities of each case "clingy" disease.Keep it start to follow the quarantine.When in 1665-1666 gg.in Europe, the plague was raging, our western borders were closed.Access ships in the port of Archangel was not admitted.
great importance for the further development of medicine had Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, founded in Moscow in 1682
It goes without saying that the pre-Petrine Russia, as well as in other countries, could not be more scientific medicine in the latersense of the word;it is also impossible to speak about the history of certain medical disciplines.Of course, while some of the longer practice medicine known kostopravnoe business, others - tended to the treatment of children's diseases, etc. But this addiction to one or another case should not be confused with the scientific specialization in the later sense of the word...Thus, speaking about the development of the history of medicine in pre-Petrine Russia, it is impossible to speak about the history of therapy as a science of internal medicine.
The era of Mongol rule in Russia coincided with the era of the Middle Ages in Western Europe.Catholicism, with its intolerance to the ideas of humanism and enlightenment for a long time delayed the forward movement of scientific thought.Medieval universities were centers of religious dogmatism.Theological thought suppressed the desire to study nature.
medical schools has long eked out a miserable existence, eating the provisions galenovskoy medical system.The development of industry and new special relationship helped to change the situation in the field of medicine.Universities are gradually updated.By the end of the XVII century, there has been two advanced medical center in Europe: one in the south, in Italy - in Padua, the other in the north, in the Netherlands - Leiden.
desire to rebuild ties with foreign science, the lack of their own universities, the need to develop domestic medicine - all this attracted Russian young students in foreign universities.Among the first Russian physicians, who studied in Padua, know the names of PV Posnikov and GI Volkova.Dr. Posnikov after graduation engaged in physiology and worked for some time in order Apothecary.
Age of the birth of scientific medicine in the history of Russia was the XVIII century, when the feudal-aristocratic empire reached its highest peak.
At the same time there was the original domestic therapeutic school, which influenced the subsequent development of advanced medical thought in our country.