The recommendations of healthy nutrition for children of different ages
Children And Health / / April 19, 2016
is difficult to dispute the assertion that the basis for the health of any baby, this is the correct and balanced diet.However, the food ration for children of different age groups is significantly different.The appropriate age child nutrition can be considered as one that ensures its healthy growth and development, and thus prevent childhood obesity.
Feeding a child from 0 to 4 months
Cow's milk is not recommended for children under the age of 1 year.During the first 4-6 months of life, infants to cater for all their needs in food products and vitamins should drink only breast milk or, in extreme cases, special milks intended for children's food, or manufactured on dairy kitchens.
Dairy mixture composition in some way resemble breast mother's milk.However, there are significant differences in health status between feeding from a bottle and breastfeeding infants.
Breast milk - a living material, containing live white blood cells and immune substances and the dynamic, nutrient source, which ha
mixtures also more nutritious, but they do not contain living white cells, digestive enzymes and immune factors.However, recipes from the formula manufacturers are constantly updated, as they must comply with the new research baby food.Less adapted
mixture "casein formula," manufactured based on cow's milk, wherein the basic protein - casein.They can be given to babies who are prone to regurgitation.These mixtures are more nutritious, so they are useful for young children who can not withstand the intervals between feedings.Partially adapted to use a mixture useful with 2-3-th month of life.Their composition is relatively close to the composition of breast milk.A so-called "follow-up formula" designed for feeding children over 5-6 months.Their energy value is higher, according to the needs of the children.
If the newborn is breastfeeding, you may need to feed it 8-12 times a day (every 2-4 hours) or at its request.By 4 months of the baby can be fed breast milk has up to 4-6 times a day, but the amount of breast milk consumed at each feeding will increase.
newborn infant formula may need to eat about 6-8 times a day.As with breastfeeding, the number of feedings decreases as the child gets older, but the amount of the mixture at each feeding increases.
can never give honey to infants because it can contain spores that cause botulism.The immune system of the baby is not yet fully formed, to reflect the possible attacks of the disease.
Although a child can sleep through the night, you may need to wake egodlya feeding, if the child does not eat enough during the day, or if it has insufficient weight.
Scheduled Scans child's doctor to monitor the growth and development of the child, can guarantee that it will be fed adequately and according to their age during the day.Your doctor or dietitian should inform parents if the spill is recommended at night to feed their baby.
Meals child in 4-6 months
At 4-6 months of age, the child must still pitatsyaili breast milk, or a mixture of molchnoy, but he is ready to begin the transition to solid food.Too early introduction of complementary foods can lead to the fact that the baby can suffocate if they are physically not ready.
There are several stages of child development, which can indicate whether he is ready to eat solid food:
- weight has doubled in comparison with what was at birth;
- the child has a good fixation of the head and neck;
- child, with some support, can sit;
- a child can become better, can turn his head to the side, or can he open his mouth;
- the child begins to show interest in the normal food when others are eating.
encourage parents to babies gradually start complementary feeding solid foods with iron, strengthen the child, rice cereal mixed with breast milk or formula in a reasonable consistency.Cereal can be mixed with a thick consistency formula, when the child learns to control the ingress of food in the mouth.
initially need to give cereal 2 times a day.The portions should be 1 or 2 tablespoons of the dry mixture, mixed with formula or breast milk.Gradually you can increase up to 3 or 4 tablespoons of oatmeal.
Cereal should not be kept in the bottle, if a doctor or nutritionist is not recommended to cook food to put in the fridge again.
As soon as the child will usually eat rice porridge, a parent may enter into his diet and other iron-fortified cereal fast food.However, it is desirable to prepare one kind of cereal per week so that you can trace the possible intolerance to one or another cereal or allergies from them.
Never put your child to bed with a bottle, as a result, it can lead to tooth decay.Use plain water if a bottle is necessary.It is necessary to discuss the use of water with a doctor (in some cases the use of excess water can lead to seizures in children).
Meals child in 6-8 months
encouraged to continue to give the baby breast milk or a mixture of 3-5 times a day.Cow's milk is not recommended for children under the age of 1 year.The child starts to drink less formula or breast milk once solid foods become the main source of its power.
After the child tried many different children's cereals, suggested to try to give him different fruits and boiled or steamed vegetables.They need to be given one by one, at intervals of 2-3 days in between to check the possible presence of allergic reactions.Start with simple vegetables - such as peas, potatoes, carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, beans, beets, as well as with such a simple fruit like bananas, apples (apple sauce), apricots, pears, peaches and melons.
Some nutritionists recommend giving a few vegetables before fruits as sweet fruits are less sweet foods - such as vegetables - make it less attractive.
Give your child 2-3 tablespoons fruit and vegetablesabout four times a day.Number of fruit and vegetables eaten per day a child will vary between 2 tablespoons and 2 cups - depending on the size and weight of the child and how well the child eats fruits and vegetables.The consistency of the products offered by the child may gradually be increased if the child carries it well.
child may be offered solid foods in small quantities, but do not give him foods such as pieces or slices of fresh apples, grapes, hot dogs, sausages, peanut butter, popcorn, potato chips, nuts, seeds, round candies and hardpieces of raw vegetables, which may cause the child choking.
Soft cooked vegetables, washed and peeled fruit, soft crackers, noodles (not artificial) - good products.Salted or very sweet foods are not recommended.It is also possible to give at this time teething - toasted bread, unsalted crackers, bagels, not too hard crackers and cookies.
Feeding baby 8-12 months
Breast milk or infant formula should be offered 3-4 times per day at this age.In 8-12 months, the baby is ready to try minced or finely chopped cooked meat.
Breastfeeding meat, you can start giving your child at the age of 8 months (breast milk is not a rich source of iron, but the children have normal iron stores up to 8 months of age, and even then they are rich in iron can be given to food - such as meat).
As with other products, you can offer a child no more than one new type of meat per week.Portion - 3-4 tablespoons.You can use finely minced meat, sausage or cooked sausage good quality.
size servings of fruits and vegetables increased from 2-3 to 3-4 tablespoons (this portion, which is given four times a day).
Eggs can be given 3-4 times a week, but only the yolks, as some children up to 1 year negatively sensitive to egg whites.
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Feeding a child after 1 year
At the age of 1, most children still drink from the bottle.If your child is still using a bottle, it should be only water.
Once a child turns 1 year, whole cow's or goat's milk may replace breast milk or formula.Children under 2 years old should not be given low-fat milk (2% or 1% -e -e) because they need the extra calories from fat to ensure proper growth and development.
Children aged 1 year old should not be given whole milk, if they have low blood counts.However cheese, cottage cheese and yogurt may be given to them in small quantities.
year old child should receive most of their food from meat, fruit, vegetables, bread, cereals and dairy group, especially whole milk.
Giving a child a variety of foods will help to ensure a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals.Kids do not grow as rapidly, so their nutritional needs during the second year of life is relatively smaller size.Although they continue to gain weight, it is no longer doubled.
However, it should be borne in mind that kids are becoming more and more active as they learn to crawl and walk.Toddlers and young children tend to eat only a small amount at a time, but often (6-7 times) during the day, so it is strongly recommended to have a bite.
Feeding solid food early in the morning is not recommended because it can lead to overfeeding the child.Encourage your child to only one new food at a time.Suggest new products for several days.Watch out for possible allergic reaction to one or another product (hives, vomiting, diarrhea).
If a child does not like a new food, try to give it to him again later.
safety during meals.It is important!
- Feed your baby directly from the jar only if you are using all of its contents.Otherwise drink clean container to prevent contamination and illness in a child foodborne.
- Opened boxes of baby food should be covered and stored in the refrigerator no more than 2 days.
- Use a small spoon to feed the baby.
- Avoid any foods that may cause choking child - popcorn, nuts, chips, corn kernels, berries, grapes, hot dogs, raw vegetables, raisins, dry cereals, etc.
- Between feedings need to periodically give the baby to drink water.
- it is not recommended to feed a small child or give him chocolates sweetened drinks, because they will spoil your appetite, stomach and can contribute to tooth decay.Salt, sugar and strong spices are also not recommended.
Also, not recommended for products containing caffeine (soft drinks, coffee, cocoa, tea, chocolate).
restless child may require attention, not food.
Feeding older children and adolescents
for adolescent child is important that the diet includes a variety of foods for a healthy development.Power principles apply to child's diet as well as adult, although the size and number of servings per day, obviously, for children will be smaller.
recommended a diet moderately low in fat as well as a diet high in fat can contribute to heart disease, obesity and other health problems in later life for children older than 2 years.A diet that contains a variety of foods from each group (bread and cereals, meat and meat products, fruits, vegetables, dairy products) will help prevent nutrient deficiencies in children.
recommended that all healthy children get the nutrition they need from food, not from vitamin supplements.
Nutrients that are likely to have a deficiency in a child's diet are: calcium, iron, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin B6 and folic acid.We do not recommend further addition of all this for the normal and healthy children.However, there is no significant risk if a parent wants to give their child a standard pediatric high quality multivitamin from trusted manufacturers.
Children who consume little or do not consume dairy products, are particularly at risk of calcium deficiency, which may hinder the growth of bones and the overall development of the body.Foods that are good calcium sources include skim milk, yogurt and cheese.It is also a source of calcium in the diet are foods such as broccoli, greens, canned salmon with bones.However, it is often difficult to get children to eat enough of these foods.
requirements vary depending on the child's age, the rate of growth of stocks of iron in his body, increasing blood volume and speed of assimilation of nutrients from food sources.
adolescent girls will be increased need for iron due to menstrual losses.Food sources of iron include meat, especially beef liver, some types of fish, poultry, iron-fortified cereals, enriched with iron factory tin bread, spinach, green apples, dried beans and peas.