Intrauterine device (IUD )
Contraception / / August 12, 2017
Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are among the most reliable means of contraception.They represent a small plastic T-shaped device is inserted into the uterus.Action IUD contraception begins as soon as the device is placed in the uterus, and stops as soon as it is removed.IUDs are effective in preventing pregnancy, which is close to 100% (pregnancy - less than 1% chance per year).They are also reversible form of contraception.After the device is removed, the woman regains its fertility.
IUD contraceptive effect is the introduction of a foreign body into the cavity of the uterus (spiral), which does not link up pozvolyayuet cavity of the uterus.In addition, veschevtvo, which is covered with a spiral leg causes a local inflammatory response, leading to a spermicidal effect, through which the sperm loses its ability to fertilize.The IUD
use copper as the active material for contraception or progesterone - IUD in plastic devices.Helix does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases.
most popular IUD Nova T Multiload, Copper T, Juno and Mirena.
Types of IUDs IUD
There are several types of intrauterine systems, they differ from each other by the material of which the size and shape.Correctly choose the IUD can only be a doctor.
There are two main materials used in the manufacture of the IUD:
- coated copper or copper-releasing.This type IUDs can remain in the uterus for 10 years.Copper ions in these IUDs are toxic to sperm, thus preventing fertilization.Copper-releasing it is also effective for emergency contraception;
- containing hormone - progestin-releasing (Mirena).This type IUDs can remain in the uterus to 5 years.Mirena is also known as levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system.This drug is a long-acting, safe and highly effective in preventing severe bleeding, as it helps to reduce spasms.Some doctors describe it as an almost perfect contraceptive.He not only contraception, but also approved for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.
Suitable for IUD
- Intrauterine devices are a good choice of contraception for women who are looking for long-term and effective birth control methods, especially for those who wish to avoid the risks and side effects of contraceptive hormones.IUD may be better suited for women with regular heavy menstrual period.
- At the time of insertion, and soon thereafter, the woman should be considered at low risk of sexually transmitted diseases (mutually monogamous relationship, using condoms or are currently sexually inactive).
- Women with risk factors that preclude hormonal contraceptives should probably avoid the progestin-releasing, at a dose of progestin IUD is significantly lower, and probably do not pose the same risks.
This does not fit IUD
- with a current or recent history of pelvic infection (risk of inflammatory diseases of the above basin is for all women who have multiple sexual partners or who are in non-monogamous relationships);
- with the current pregnancy;
- with abnormal Pap tests;
- cervical cancer;
- with very large or very small uterus.
When to install IUD
few exceptions, IUDs can be inserted at any time, except during pregnancy or periods when the body there is an infection, but the ideal time is considered the first 7 days of the menstrualcycle.IUDs can be inserted immediately after childbirth, women, or after a planned or spontaneous abortion.
IUD insertion procedure can be painful and sometimes causes cramps, but for many women it is only slightly inconvenient.Patients are advised to take advance painkillers or local anesthetic is applied to the cervix, if they are sensitive to pain in the area.Sometimes, during the insertion of the IUD woman feels dizzy.Some women may experience cramps and back pain for 1-2 days after the administration of funds, while others may suffer cramps and back pain for weeks or months.Analgesics are usually harvested this discomfort.
Navy is set for a period of 3-10 years, depending on the type of IUD, the manufacturer's recommendations and the health status of women, after which it is recommended to take out and, during the next period, to put a new one.
When it is necessary to remove the spiral
If there are no medical contraindications, then remove the coil is necessary, if a woman is planning a pregnancy.Remove spiral better during menstruation.During this period, the cervix slightly open, and the sensation of extracting spiral minimized.To remove the IUD is painless and requires no anesthesia.
Advantages and Disadvantages IUD
- Navy installed on up to 5 years, and begin to act immediately after administration;
- is reversible and more effective contraceptives than oral, in preventing pregnancy.As soon as the IUD is removed, fertility returns;
- as opposed to tablets, to receive them do not follow the daily routine;
- in contrast to barrier methods (spermicides, diaphragms, caps and a male or female condom), there is no insertion procedure before or during sex;
- sexual intercourse can be resumed at any time, and if the IUD is inserted correctly, no woman, no partner usually does not feel the IUD or string during sexual activity;
- this is the most expensive form of contraception for a long time;
- IUDs and contraceptive implants are recommended as first-line contraception for teenagers.
- Contraception and birth control: a review of modern methods
- Oral contraceptives and birth control pills
- Combination hormonal contraceptives: a skin patch, vaginal ring, implants, injections
- Spermicides and barrier contraception
Additional advantages, depending on the Navy include:
- progestin-releasing LNG-IUS (Mirena) is now considered one of the best options for the treatment of menorrhagia (this heavy and heavy menstrual bleeding).However, irregular bleeding may occur during the first 6 months;
- Navy does not affect breast-feeding;
- copper IUD has no hormonal side effects and can help protect against endometrial and uterine cancer;
- both types of IUDs may reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer.
By Navy Disadvantages:
- Impossibility of application if a woman suffered inflammatory diseases of the uterus and appendages;
- must not be used before or after pregnancy;
- Permanent "ajar" uterus increases the risk of infection;
- After installing the Navy is not desirable to engage in active sports.
Complications of intrauterine devices
- menstrual bleeding - both types of IUDs affect menstruation:
--releasing copper can cause seizures, long and heavy menstrual periods and spotting between menstrual periods;
- progestin-releasing produces irregular bleeding and spotting during the first few months.Bleeding may disappear altogether (this feature is an important benefit for women who suffer from heavy menstrual bleeding, but can be perceived as a problem for the other).
rejection.Approximately 2-8% of the Navy rejected by the uterus during the first year.Rejection is the most likely:
- during the first 3 months after IUD insertion;
- during menstruation (women should check and make sure the IUD is in place);
- if the IUD is inserted immediately after childbirth;
- in very rare cases, perforation (puncture) of the uterus may occur during insertion of the IUD.
other security problems.Research shows that:
- IUD may increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy, but women who use IUDs are very low risk of pregnancy.It is known that women with IUDs percentage of ectopic pregnancies is almost four times higher than the rest;
- IUD may increase the risk of benign ovarian cysts, but these cysts usually do not cause symptoms, and they usually pass on their own;
- IUDs do not increase the risk of pelvic infection;
- Navy did not affect fertility or increase the risk of infertility.After the IUD is removed, fertility is restored;
- use this method of contraception is contraindicated in chronic infections of the uterus and appendages, cervical erosion, malignant tumors of the body and cervix.Also, women with scar cervical strain after birth, the spiral does not hold (it pushed uterine contractions).A woman can not feel, which would result in conception.