Contraceptives and contraceptive devices
Contraception / / April 19, 2016
In our age, for many people - both women and men - the theme of contraception is extremely important.Earlier tradition having children young parents are gone.Today, more and more people seek above all to secure the material well-being, stability and position in society - and only then decide on the birth of a child.A properly planned pregnancy is helping various contraceptive methods by which a greater or lesser degree of reliability can prevent an unwanted pregnancy.Choosing the appropriate contraception - a personal decision and the individual choice of the person.
There are many contraceptives - devices, drugs or methods for contraception - that is, prevent pregnancy by stopping the fertilization of a female egg male sperm or by preventing implantation of a fertilized egg.Prevention methods one can choose based on your personal preferences and wishes.
modern contraception options include:
- skin patch, vaginal ring, implants, injections;
- intrauterine device (IUD), which contains copper or hor
- barrier device (such as a diaphragm, caps, sponges, condoms) with spermicide or without spermicides;
- methods of fertility (temperature, cervical mucus, calendar, Symptothermal method);
- female sterilization (tubal ligation);
- vasectomy (male sterilization - surgery irreversible cessation of the male reproductive function, in which the produced ligation or removal of a fragment of the vas deferens in men, which leads to the inability to have offspring, while maintaining sexual function);
- the condom - it is the only method of birth control that protects against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs);
- the pill - they work in several ways to prevent pregnancy: suppress ovulation, preventing the egg released from the ovaries.They also alter the cervical mucus, causing it to become thicker and complicating the movement of sperm into the uterus.Birth control pills do not allow the lining of the womb to develop enough to receive and develop a fertilized egg.This method of birth control offers no protection against sexually transmitted diseases.
Determination of the effectiveness of contraception
Choice of contraceptive method depends on its efficacy in preventing unintended pregnancy.This, in turn, depends not only on the particular contraceptive efficacy, but also on how to systematically and properly applies it.
correctness and regularity of the use of certain contraceptives depends largely on the characteristics of such a person, especially a woman, age, income level, local culture, and most importantly - its desire to prevent or delay the onset of pregnancy.
There are a number of methods whose effectiveness is largely determined by the consistency and correctness of their application.Most often, the effectiveness of contraceptive methods increases the accumulation of practical experience using them.
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contraceptive effectiveness depends on many factors.Contraceptive efficacy is characterized by "typical use" and "perfect use" of contraceptives:
- typical use refers to the actual conditions in which sometimes there are errors (for example, people forget to take the pill at the right time);
- ideal use applies to contraceptives, are used correctly every time sexual intercourse had taken place.
most effective standard female contraceptives - those that do not work on less than 1% of a typical (normal) use.These include:
- intrauterine device (IUD - intrauterine device);
- surgical sterilization.
For comparison, the frequency response is not male latex condom - about 18% in normal use and 2% - by using perfect.Intensity is not the effectiveness of hormonal contraception - about 9% in the first year of typical use.Sexually active women of reproductive age who are not using contraception, are faced with 85% chance of getting pregnant within a year.
also the efficiency of any contraceptive method is best determined by the number of pregnancies that occur in 100 women in the first 12 months of using this method.The name of this indicator - "Pearl Index".K highly methods include 0-1 Pearl index, effective to - 2-9 with an index to low efficiency - with an index of 10-30.The expected efficiency of the method on the Pearl Index is consistent with laboratory studies, but in practice it turns out to be somewhat less because of the possible misuse of funds.The most effective methods on an index of Pearl include: abstinence (abstinence), male and female sterilization, intrauterine devices with a hormone or copper, hormonal combined oral contraceptives and hormone drugs prolonged.